Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
overlap from the fifth to the eighth, but are less oblique in direction above and below. The superior articular processes are thin plates of bone projecting upward from the junctions of the pedicles and laminæ; their articular facets are practically flat, and are directed backward and a little lateralward and upward. The inferior articular processes are fused to a considerable extent with the laminæ, and project but slightly beyond their lower borders; their facets are directed forward and a little medialward and downward. The transverse processes arise from the arch behind the superior articular processes and pedicles; they are thick, strong, and of considerable length, directed obliquely backward and lateralward, and each ends in a clubbed extremity, on the front of which is a small, concave surface, for articulation with the tubercle of a rib.