Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
The Cheeks (buccæ) form the sides of the face, and are continuous in front with the lips. They are composed externally of integument; internally of mucous membrane; and between the two of a muscular stratum, besides a large quantity of fat, areolar tissue, vessels, nerves, and buccal glands.
Structure.The mucous membrane lining the cheek is reflected above and below upon the gums, and is continuous behind with the lining membrane of the soft palate. Opposite the second molar tooth of the maxilla is a papilla, on the summit of which is the aperture of the parotid duct. The principal muscle of the cheek is the Buccinator; but other muscles enter into its formation, viz., the Zygomaticus, Risorius, and Platysma.
The buccal glands are placed between the mucous membrane and Buccinator muscle: they are similar in structure to the labial glands, but smaller. About five, of a larger size than the rest, are placed between the Masseter and Buccinator muscles around the distal extremity of the parotid duct; their ducts open in the mouth opposite the last molar tooth. They are called molar glands.
The Gums (gingiv) are composed of dense fibrous tissue, closely connected to the periosteum of the alveolar processes, and surrounding the necks of the teeth. They are covered by smooth and vascular mucous membrane, which is remarkable for its limited sensibility. Around the necks of the teeth this membrane presents numerous fine papillæ, and is reflected into the alveoli, where it is continuous with the periosteal membrane lining these cavities.
The Palate (palatum) forms the roof of the mouth; it consists of two portions, the hard palate in front, the soft palate behind.
The Hard Palate (palatum durum) (Fig. 1014) is bounded in front and at the sides by the alveolar arches and gums; behind, it is continuous with the soft palate. It is covered by a dense structure, formed by the periosteum and mucous membrane of the mouth, which are intimately adherent. Along the middle line is a linear raphæ, which ends anteriorly in a small papilla corresponding with the incisive canal. On either side and in front of the raphé the mucous membrane is thick, pale in color, and corrugated; behind, it is thin, smooth, and of a deeper color; it is covered with stratified squamous epithelium, and furnished with numerous palatal glands, which lie between the mucous membrane and the surface of the bone.
The Soft Palate (palatum molle) (Fig. 1014) is a movable fold, suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate, and forming an incomplete septum between the mouth and pharynx. It consists of a fold of mucous membrane enclosing muscular fibers, an aponeurosis, vessels, nerves, adenoid tissue, and mucous glands. When occupying its usual position, i. e., relaxed and pendent, its anterior surface is concave, continuous with the roof of the mouth, and marked by a median raphé. Its posterior surface is convex, and continuous with the mucous membrane covering the floor of the nasal cavities. Its upper border is attached to the posterior margin of the hard palate, and its sides are blended with the pharynx. Its lower border is free. Its lower portion, which hangs like a curtain between the mouth and pharynx is termed the palatine velum.
Hanging from the middle of its lower border is a small, conical, pendulous process, the palatine uvula; and arching lateralward and downward from the base of the uvula on either side are two curved folds of mucous membrane, containing muscular fibers, called the arches or pillars of the fauces.
The Teeth (dentes) (Figs. 995to 997).Man is provided with two sets of teeth, which make their appearance at different periods of life. Those of the first set appear in childhood, and are called the deciduous or milk teeth. Those of the second set, which also appear at an early period, may continue until old age, and are named permanent.
The deciduous teeth are twenty in number: four incisors, two canines, and four molars, in each jaw.