Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
There are, however, considerable variations in these times; thus, according to Holt:
At the age of 1 year a child should have 6 teeth.
At the age of 1 1/2 years a child should have 12 teeth.
At the age of 2 year a child should have 16 teeth.
At the age of 2 1/2 years a child should have 20 teeth.
Calcification of the permanent teeth proceeds in the following order in the lower jaw (in the upper jaw it takes place a little later): the first molar, soon after birth; the central and lateral incisors, and the canine, about six months after birth; the premolars, at the second year, or a little later; the second molar, about the end of the second year; the third molar, about the twelfth year.
The eruption of the permanent teeth takes place at the following periods, the teeth of the lower jaw preceding those of the upper by short intervals:
Two central incisors
Two lateral incisors
11th to 12th year.
12th to 13th year.
17th to 25th year.
Toward the sixth year, before the shedding of the deciduous teeth begins, there are twenty-four teeth in each jaw, viz., the ten deciduous teeth and the crowns of all the permanent teeth except the third molars.
The Tongue (lingua).The tongue is the principal organ of the sense of taste, and an important organ of speech; it also assists in the mastication and deglutition of the food. It is situated in the floor of the mouth, within the curve of the body of the mandible.
Its Root (radix linguæ base) (Fig. 954) is directed backward, and connected with the hyoid bone by the Hyoglossi and Genioglossi muscles and the hyoglossal membrane; with the epiglottis by three folds (glossoepiglottic) of mucous membrane; with the soft palate by the glossopalatine arches; and with the pharynx by the Constrictores pharyngis superiores and the mucous membrane.
Its Apex (apex linguæ tip), thin and narrow, is directed forward against the lingual surfaces of the lower incisor teeth.
Its Inferior Surface (facies inferior linguæ under surface) (Fig. 1013) is connected with the mandible by the Genioglossi; the mucous membrane is reflected from it to the lingual surface of the gum and on to the floor of the mouth, where, in the middle line, it is elevated into a distinct vertical fold, the frenulum linguæ. On either side lateral to the frenulum is a slight fold of the mucous membrane, the plica fimbriata, the free edge of which occasionally exhibits a series of fringe-like processes.
The apex of the tongue, part of the inferior surface, the sides, and dorsum are free.
The Dorsum of the Tongue (dorsum linguæ) (Fig. 1014) is convex and marked by a median sulcus, which divides it into symmetrical halves; this sulcus ends behind, about 2.5 cm. from the root of the organ, in a depression, the foramen cecum, from which a shallow groove, the sulcus terminalis, runs lateralward and forward on either side to the margin of the tongue. The part of the dorsum of the tongue in front of this groove, forming about two-thirds of its surface, looks upward, and is rough and covered with papillæ; the posterior third looks backward, and is