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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
  The Chondroglossus is sometimes described as a part of the Hyoglossus, but is separated from it by fibers of the Genioglossus, which pass to the side of the pharynx. It is about 2 cm. long, and arises from the medial side and base of the lesser cornu and contiguous portion of the body of the hyoid bone, and passes directly upward to blend with the intrinsic muscular fibers of the tongue, between the Hyoglossus and Genioglossus.
  A small slip of muscular fibers is occasionally found, arising from the cartilago triticea in the lateral hyothyroid ligament and entering the tongue with the hindermost fibers of the Hyoglossus.
  The Styloglossus, the shortest and smallest of the three styloid muscles, arises from the anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process, near its apex, and from the stylomandibular ligament. Passing downward and forward between the internal and external carotid arteries, it divides upon the side of the tongue near its dorsal surface, blending with the fibers of the Longitudinalis inferior in front of the Hyoglossus; the other, oblique, overlaps the Hyoglossus and decussates with its fibers.
  The intrinsic muscles (Fig. 1020) are:
Longitudinalis superior.
Transversus.
Longitudinalis inferior.
Verticalis.
  The Longitudinalis linguæ superior (Superior lingualis) is a thin stratum of oblique and longitudinal fibers immediately underlying the mucous membrane on the dorsum of the tongue. It arises from the submucous fibrous layer close to the epiglottis and from the median fibrous septum, and runs forward to the edges of the tongue.


FIG. 1020– Coronal section of tongue, showing intrinsic muscles. (Altered from Krause.) (See enlarged image)

  The Longitudinalis linguæ inferior (Inferior lingualis) is a narrow band situated on the under surface of the tongue between the Genioglossus and Hyoglossus. It extends from the root to the apex of the tongue: behind, some of its fibers are connected with the body of the hyoid bone; in front it blends with the fibers of the Styloglossus.
  The Transversus linguæ (Transverse lingualis) consists of fibers which arise from the median fibrous septum and pass lateralward to be inserted into the submucous fibrous tissue at the sides of the tongue.

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