Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
of a lens, their orifices appearing as minute dots scattered between the villi. Their walls are thin, consisting of a basement membrane lined by columnar epithelium, and covered on their exterior by capillary vessels.
The duodenal glands (glandulæ duodenales [Brunneri]; Brunners glands) are limited to the duodenum (Fig. 1058), and are found in the submucous areolar tissue. They are largest and most numerous near the pylorus, forming an almost complete layer in the superior portion and upper half of the descending portions of the duodenum. They then begin to diminish in number, and practically disappear at the junction of the duodenum and jejunum. They are small compound acinotubular glands consisting of a number of alveoli lined by short columnar epithelium and opening by a single duct on the inner surface of the intestine.
The solitary lymphatic nodules (noduli lymphatici solitarii; solitary glands) are found scattered throughout the mucous membrane of the small intestine, but are most numerous in the lower part of the ileum. Their free surfaces are covered with rudimentary villi, except at the summits, and each gland is surrounded by the openings of the intestinal glands. Each consists of a dense interlacing retiform tissue closely packed with lymph-corpuscles, and permeated with an abundant capillary network. The interspaces of the retiform tissue are continuous with larger lymph spaces which surround the gland, through which they communicate with the lacteal system. They are situated partly in the submucous tissue, partly in the mucous membrane, where they form slight projections of its epithelial layer (see Fig. 1082).
The aggregated lymphatic nodules (noduli lymphatici aggregati; Peyers patches; Peyers glands; agminated follicles; tonsillæ intestinales) (Fig. 1063) form circular or oval patches, from twenty to thirty in number, and varying in length from 2 to 10 cm. They are largest and most numerous in the ileum. In the lower part of the jejunum they are small, circular, and few in number. They are occasionally seen in the duodenum. They are placed lengthwise in the intestine, and are situated in the portion of the tube most distant from the attachment of the mesentery. Each patch is formed of a group of solitary lymphatic nodules covered with mucous membrane, but the patches do not, as a rule, possess villi on their free surfaces. They are best marked in the young subject, become indistinct in middle age, and sometimes disappear altogether in advanced life. They are freely supplied with bloodvessels (Fig. 1064), which form an abundant plexus around each follicle and give off fine branches permeating the lymphoid tissue in the interior of the follicle. The lymphatic plexuses are especially abundant around these patches.
Vessels and Nerves.The jejunum and ileum are supplied by the superior mesenteric artery, the intestinal branches of which, having reached the attached border of the bowel, run between the serous and muscular coats, with frequent inosculations to the free border, where they also anastomose with other branches running around the opposite surface of the gut. From these vessels numerous branches are given off, which pierce the muscular coat, supplying it and forming an intricate plexus in the submucous tissue. From this plexus minute vessels pass to the glands and villi of the mucous membrane. The veins have a similar course and arrangement to the arteries. The lymphatics of the small intestine (lacteals) are arranged in two sets, those of the mucous membrane and those of the muscular coat. The lymphatics of the villi commence in these structures in the manner described above. They form an intricate plexus in the mucous and submucous tissue, being joined by the lymphatics from the lymph spaces at the bases of the solitary nodules, and from this pass to larger vessels at the mesenteric border of the gut. The lymphatics of the muscular coat are situated to a great extent between the two layers of muscular fibers, where they form a close plexus; throughout their course they communicate freely with