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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
point of view, in connection with the removal of the lower part of the rectum. It is higher in the male than in the female. In the former the height of the rectovesical excavation is about 7.5 cm., i. e., the height to which an ordinary index finger can reach from the anus. In the female the height of the rectouterine excavation is about 5.5 cm. from the anal orifice. The rectum is surrounded by a dense tube of fascia derived from the fascia endopelvina, but fused behind with the fascia covering the sacrum and coccyx. The facial tube is loosely attached to the rectal wall by areolar tissue in order to allow of distension of the viscus.

Relations of the Rectum.—The upper part of the rectum is in relation, behind, with the superior hemorrhoidal vessels, the left Piriformis, and left sacral plexus of nerves, which separate it from the pelvic surfaces of the sacral vertebræ; in its lower part it lies directly on the sacrum, coccyx, and Levatores ani, a dense fascia alone intervening; in front, it is separated above, in the male, from the fundus of the bladder; in the female, from the intestinal surface of the uterus and its appendages, by some convolutions of the small intestine, and frequently by the sigmoid colon; below, it is in relation in the male with the triangular portion of the fundus of the bladder, the vesiculæ seminales, and ductus deferentes, and more anteriorly with the posterior surface of the prostate; in the female, with the posterior wall of the vagina.


FIG. 1079– Coronal section through the anal canal. (Symington.) B. Cavity of urinary bladder. V.D. Ductus deferens. S.V. Seminal vesicle. R. Second part of rectum. A.C. Anal canal. L.A. Levator ani. I.S. Sphincter ani internus. E.S. Sphinear ani externus. (See enlarged image)



FIG. 1080– The interior of the anal cami and lower part of the rectum, showing the columns of Morgagni and the anal valves between their lower ends. The columns were more numerous in the specimen than usual. (Cunningham.) (See enlarged image)

  The Anal Canal (pars analis recti) (Figs. 1079, 1080, 1081), or terminal portion of the large intestine, begins at the level of the apex of the prostate, is directed downward and backward, and ends at the anus. It forms an angle with the lower part of the rectum, and measures from 2.5 to 4 cm. in length. It has no peritoneal covering, but is invested by the Sphincter ani internus, supported by the Levatores ani, and surrounded at its termination by the Sphincter ani externus. In the

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