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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
of the descending portion of the duodenum, but sometimes with the superior portion of the duodenum or pyloric end of the stomach. The fundus is completely invested by peritoneum; it is in relation, in front, with the abdominal parietes, immediately below the ninth costal cartilage; behind with the transverse colon. The neck is narrow, and curves upon itself like the letter S; at its point of connection with the cystic duct it presents a well-marked constriction.


FIG. 1096– Transverse section of gall-bladder. (See enlarged image)


Structure (Fig. 1096).—The gall-bladder consists of three coats: serous, fibromuscular, and mucous.
  The external or serous coat (tunica serosa vesicæ felleæ) is derived from the peritoneum; it completely invests the fundus, but covers the body and neck only on their under surfaces.
  The fibromuscular coat (tunica muscularis vesicæ felleæ), a thin but strong layer forming the frame-work of the sac, consists of dense fibrous tissue, which interlaces in all directions, and is mixed with plain muscular fibers, disposed chiefly in a longitudinal direction, a few running transversely.
  The internal or mucous coat (tunica mucosa vesicæ felleæ) is loosely connected with the fibrous layer. It is generally of a yellowish-brown color, and is elevated into minute rugæ. Opposite the neck of the gall-bladder the mucous membrane projects inward in the form of oblique ridges or folds, forming a sort of spiral valve.
  The mucous membrane is continuous through the hepatic duct with the mucous membrane lining the ducts of the liver, and through the common bile duct with the mucous membrane of the duodenum. It is covered with columnar epithelium, and secretes mucin; in some animals it secretes a nucleoprotein instead of mucin.
  The Cystic Duct (ductus cysticus).—The cystic duct about 4 cm. long, runs backward, downward, and to the left from the neck of the gall-bladder, and joins the hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. The mucous membrane lining its interior is thrown into a series of crescentic folds, from five to twelve in number, similar to those found in the neck of the gall-bladder. They project into the duct in regular succession, and are directed obliquely around the tube, presenting much the appearance of a continuous spiral valve. When the duct is distended, the spaces between the folds are dilated, so as to give to its exterior a twisted appearance.
  The Common Bile Duct (ductus choledochus).—The common bile duct is formed by the junction of the cystic and hepatic ducts; it is about 7.5 cm. long, and of the diameter of a goose-quill.
  It descends along the right border of the lesser omentum behind the superior portion of the duodenum, in front of the portal vein, and to the right of the hepatic artery; it then runs in a groove near the right border of the posterior surface of the head of the pancreas; here it is situated in front of the inferior vena cava, and is occasionally completely imbedded in the pancreatic substance. At its termination it lies for a short distance along the right side of the terminal part of the pancreatic duct and passes with it obliquely between the mucous and muscular coats. The

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