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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 

Anterior Surface of Left Kidney.—A small area along the upper part of the medial border is in relation with the left suprarenal gland, and close to the lateral border is a long strip in contact with the renal impression on the spleen. A somewhat quadrilateral field, about the middle of the anterior surface, marks the site of contact with the body of the pancreas, on the deep surface of which are the lienal vessels. Above this is a small triangular portion, between the suprarenal and splenic areas, in contact with the postero-inferior surface of the stomach. Below the pancreatic area the lateral part is in relation with the left colic flexure, the medial with the small intestine. The areas in contact with the stomach and spleen are covered by the peritoneum of the omental bursa, while that in relation to the small intestine is covered by the peritoneum of the general cavity; behind the latter are some branches of the left colic vessels. The suprarenal, pancreatic, and colic areas are devoid of peritoneum.


FIG. 1121– Posterior abdominal wall, after removal of the peritoneum, showing kidneys, suprarenal capsules, and great vessels. (Corning). (See enlarged image)

  The Posterior Surface (facies posterior) (Figs. 1123, 1124).—The posterior surface of each kidney is directed backward and medialward. It is imbedded in areolar and fatty tissue and entirely devoid of peritoneal covering. It lies upon the diaphragm, the medial and lateral lumbocostal arches, the Psoas major, the Quadratus

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