Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
lumborum, and the tendon of the Transversus abdominis, the subcostal, and one or two of the upper lumbar arteries, and the last thoracic, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal nerves. The right kidney rests upon the twelfth rib, the left usually on the eleventh and twelfth. The diaphragm separates the kidney from the pleura, which dips down to form the phrenicocostal sinus, but frequently the muscular fibers of the diaphragm are defective or absent over a triangular area immediately above the lateral lumbocostal arch, and when this is the case the perinephric areolar tissue is in contact with the diaphragmatic pleura.
FIG. 1122 The anterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing the areas of contact of neighboring viscera. (See enlarged image)
FIG. 1123 The posterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing areas of relation to the parietes. (See enlarged image)
Borders.The lateral border (margo lateralis; external border) is convex, and is directed toward the postero-lateral wall of the abdomen. On the left side it is in contact at its upper part, with the spleen.