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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
  The medial border (margo medialis; internal border) is concave in the center and convex toward either extremity; it is directed forward and a little downward. Its central part presents a deep longitudinal fissure, bounded by prominent overhanging anterior and posterior lips. This fissure is named the hilum, and transmits the vessels, nerves, and ureter. Above the hilum the medial border is in relation with the suprarenal gland; below the hilum, with the ureter.


FIG. 1124– The relations of the kidneys from behind. (See enlarged image)


Extremities.—The superior extremity (extremitas superior) is thick and rounded, and is nearer the median line than the lower; it is surmounted by the suprarenal gland, which covers also a small portion of the anterior surface.


FIG. 1125– Sagittal section through posterior abdominal wall, showing the relations of the capsule of the kidney. (After Gerota). (See enlarged image)

  The inferior extremity (extremitas inferior) is smaller and thinner than the superior and farther from the median line. It extends to within 5 cm. of the iliac crest.
  The relative position of the main structures in the hilum is as follows: the vein is in front, the artery in the middle, and the ureter behind and directed downward. Frequently, however, branches of both artery and vein are placed behind the ureter.

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