Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
are so thin that the outline of the bone is perceptible beneath them. Those of the face are small, covered by soft skin, and often by a considerable layer of fat, and their outlines are therefore concealed; they serve, however, to round off and smooth prominent borders, and to fill up what would otherwise be unsightly angular depressions. Thus the Orbicularis oculi rounds off the prominent margin of the orbit, and the Procerus fills in the sharp depression below the glabella. In like manner the labial muscles converging to the lips, and assisted by the superimposed fat, fill up the sunken hollow of the lower part of the face. When in action the facial muscles produce the various expressions, and in addition throw the skin into numerous folds and wrinkles. The Masseter imparts fulness to the hinder part of the cheek; if firmly contracted, as when the teeth are clenched, its quadrilateral outline is plainly visible; the anterior border forms a prominent vertical ridge, behind which is a considerable fulness especially marked at the lower part of the muscle. The Temporalis is fan-shaped and fills the temporal fossa, substituting for the concavity a somewhat convex swelling, the anterior part of which, on account of the absence of hair on the overlying skin, is more marked than the posterior, and stands out in strong relief when the muscle is in action.
In the neck, the Platysma when contracted throws the skin into oblique ridges parallel with the fasciculi of the muscle. The Sternocleidomastoideus has the most important influence on the surface form of the neck (Figs. 1194,1195). When the muscle is at rest its anterior border forms an oblique rounded edge ending below in the sharp outline of the sternal head; the posterior border is only distinct for about 2 or 3 cm. above the middle of the clavicle. During contraction, the sternal head stands out as a sharply defined ridge, while the clavicular head is flatter and less prominent; between the two heads is a slight depression: the fleshy middle portion