|Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.|
|lumbar vertebra. The hilum is 5 cm. from the middle line at the level of the spinous process of the first lumbar vertebra.|
Ureters.On the front of the abdomen, the line of the ureter runs from the hilum of the kidney to the pubic tubercle; on the back, from the hilum vertically downward, passing practically through the posterior superior iliac spine (Fig. 1226).
FIG. 1226 Back of lumbar region, showing surface markings for kidneys, ureters, and spleen. The lower portions of the lung and pleura are shown on the right side. (See enlarged image)
FIG. 1227 Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for arteries and inguinal canal. (See enlarged image)
Vessels (Fig. 1227).The inferior epigastric artery can be marked out by a line from a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic symphysis to the umbilicus. This line also indicates the lateral boundary of Hesselbachs trianglean area of importance in connection with inguinal hernia; the other boundaries are the lateral edge of Rectus abdominis, and the medial half of the inguinal ligament. The line of the abdominal aorta begins in the middle line about 4 cm. above the transpyloric line and extends to a point 2 cm. below and to the left of the umbilicusor more accurately to a point 2 cm. to the left of the middle line on a line which passes through the highest points of the iliac crests (A A, Fig. 1227). The point of termination of the abdominal aorta corresponds to the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra; a line drawn from it to a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis indicates the common and external