Male Urogenital Organs.The corpora cavernosa penis can be followed backward to the crura which are attached to the sides of the pubic arch. The glans penis, covered by the prepuce, and the external urethral orifice can be examined, and the course of the urethra traced along the under surface of the penis to the bulb which is situated immediately in front of the central point of the perineum. Through the wall of the scrotum on either side the testis can be palpated; it lies toward the back of the scrotum, and along its posterior border the epididymis can be felt; passing upward along the medial side of the epididymis is the spermatic cord, which can be traced upward to the subcutaneous inguinal ring.
By means of a sound the general topography of the urethra and bladder can be investigated; with the urethroscope the interior of the urethra can be illuminated and viewed directly; with the cystoscope the interior of the bladder is in a similar manner illuminated for visual examination. In the bladder the main points to which attention is directed are the trigone, the torus uretericus, the plicæ uretericæ, and the openings of the ureters and urethra (see Fig. 1240).
Female Urogenital Organs.In the pudendal cleft(Fig. 1229) between the labia minora are the openings of the vagina and urethra. In the virgin the vaginal opening is partly closed by the hymenafter coitus the remains of the hymen are represented by the carunculæ hymenales. Between the hymen and the frenulum of the labia is the fossa navicularis, while in the groove between the hymen and the labium minus, on either side, the small opening of the greater vestibular (Bartholins) gland can be seen. These glands when enlarged can be felt on either side of the