Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
foramen. The course of the femoral artery(Fig. 1245) is represented by the upper two-thirds of a line from a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis to the adductor tubercle, with the thigh abducted and rotated outward; the profunda femoris arises from it about 1 to 5 cm. below the inguinal ligament. The course of the upper part of the popliteal artery(Fig. 1247) is indicated by a line from the lateral margin of Semimembranosus at the junction of the middle and lower thirds of the thigh, obliquely downward to the middle of the popliteal fossa; from this point it runs vertically downward for about 2.5 cm. or to the level of a line through the lower part of the tibial tuberosity. The line indicating the anterior tibial artery(Fig. 1246) is drawn from the medial side of the head of the fibula to a point midway between the malleoli; the artery begins about 3 cm. below the head of the fibula. The dorsalis pedis artery is represented on the dorsum of the foot by a line from the center of the interval between the malleoli to the proximal end of the first intermetatarsal space.
The course of the posterior tibial artery(Fig. 1247) can be shown by a line from the end of the popliteal artery, i. e., 2.5 cm. below the center of the popliteal fossa, to midway between the tip of the medial malleolus and the center of the convexity of the heel; its main branch, the peroneal artery, begins about 7 or 8 cm. below the level of the knee-joint and follows the line of the fibula to the back of the lateral malleolus. The medial and lateral plantar arteries begin from the end of the posterior tibial; the medial extends to the middle of the plantar surface of the ball of the great toe, the lateral to within a fingers breadth of the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone; from this latter point the plantar arch crosses the foot transversely to the proximal end of the first intermetatarsal space.
Veins.The line of the great saphenous vein is from the front of the medial malleolus to the center of the fossa ovalis; the small saphenous vein runs from the back of the lateral malleolus to the center of the popliteal fossa.
Nerves.The course of the sciatic nerve(Fig. 1247) can be indicated by a line from a point midway between the outer border of the ischial tuberosity and the posterior superior angle of the greater trochanter to the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. The continuation of this line vertically through the center of the popliteal fossa represents the position of the tibial nerve, while the common peroneal nerve follows the line of the tendon of Biceps femoris. The lines for the deep peroneal nerve and the continuation of the tibial nerve correspond respectively to those for the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.