This is a ginglymo-arthrodial joint; the parts entering into its formation on either side are: the anterior part of the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and the articular tubercle above; and the condyle of the mandible below. The ligaments of the joint are the following:
The Articular Capsule.
The Articular Disk.
The Articular Capsule (capsula articularis; capsular ligament).The articular capsule is a thin, loose envelope, attached above to the circumference of the mandibular fossa and the articular tubercle immediately in front; below, to the neck of the condyle of the mandible.
The Temporomandibular Ligament (ligamentum temporomandibulare; external lateral ligament) (Fig. 309).The temporomandibular ligament consists of two short, narrow fasciculi, one in front of the other, attached, above, to the lateral surface of the zygomatic arch and to the tubercle on its lower border; below, to the lateral surface and posterior border of the neck of the mandible. It is broader above than below, and its fibers are directed obliquely downward and backward. It is covered by the parotid gland, and by the integument.
The Sphenomandibular Ligament (ligamentum sphenomandibulare; internal lateral ligament) (Fig. 310).The sphenomandibular ligament is a flat, thin band which is attached above to the spina angularis of the sphenoid bone, and, becoming broader as it descends, is fixed to the lingula of the mandibular foramen. Its lateral surface is in relation, above, with the Pterygoideus externus; lower down, it is separated from the neck of the condyle by the internal maxillary vessels; still lower, the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve and a lobule of the parotid gland lie between it and the ramus of the mandible. Its medial surface is in relation with the Pterygoideus internus.