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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
It is attached, by its apex, to the summit of the acromion just in front of the articular surface for the clavicle; and by its broad base to the whole length of the lateral border of the coracoid process. This ligament, together with the coracoid process and the acromion, forms a vault for the protection of the head of the humerus. It is in relation, above, with the clavicle and under surface of the Deltoideus; below, with the tendon of the Supraspinatus, a bursa being interposed. Its lateral border is continuous with a dense lamina that passes beneath the Deltoideus upon the tendons of the Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus. The ligament is sometimes described as consisting of two marginal bands and a thinner intervening portion, the two bands being attached respectively to the apex and the base of the coracoid process, and joining together at the acromion. When the Pectoralis minor is inserted, as occasionally is the case, into the capsule of the shoulder-joint instead of into the coracoid process, it passes between these two bands, and the intervening portion of the ligament is then deficient.

The Superior Transverse Ligament (ligamentum transversum scapulæ superius; transverse or suprascapular ligament).—This ligament converts the scapular notch into a foramen. It is a thin and flat fasciculus, narrower at the middle than at the extremities, attached by one end to the base of the coracoid process, and by the other to the medial end of the scapular notch. The suprascapular nerve runs through the foramen; the transverse scapular vessels cross over the ligament. The ligament is sometimes ossified.

The Inferior Transverse Ligament (ligamentum transversum scapulæ inferius; spinoglenoid ligament).—This ligament is a weak membranous band, situated behind the neck of the scapula and stretching from the lateral border of the spine to the margin of the glenoid cavity. It forms an arch under which the transverse scapular vessels and suprascapular nerve enter the infraspinatous fossa.
 
6c. Humeral Articulation or Shoulder-joint
 
  
(Articulatio Humeri) (Fig. 326)


The shoulder-joint is an enarthrodial or ball-and-socket joint. The bones entering into its formation are the hemispherical head of the humerus and the shallow glenoid cavity of the scapula, an arrangement which permits of very considerable movement, while the joint itself is protected against displacement by the tendons which surround it. The ligaments do not maintain the joint surfaces in apposition, because when they alone remain the humerus can be separated to a considerable extent from the glenoid cavity; their use, therefore, is to limit the amount of movement. The joint is protected above by an arch, formed by the coracoid process, the acromion, and the coracoacromial ligament. The articular cartilage on the head of the humerus is thicker at the center than at the circumference, the reverse being the case with the articular cartilage of the glenoid cavity. The ligaments of the shoulder are:
The Articular Capsule.
The Glenohumeral.
The Coracohumeral.
The Transverse Humeral.
The Glenoidal Labrum. 1

The Articular Capsule (capsula articularis; capsular ligament) (Fig. 327).—The articular capsule completely encircles the joint, being attached, above, to the circumference of the glenoid cavity beyond the glenoidal labrum; below, to the anatomical neck of the humerus, approaching nearer to the articular cartilage above than in the rest of its extent. It is thicker above and below than elsewhere, and is so remarkably loose and lax, that it has no action in keeping the bones in contact, but allows them to be separated from each other more than 2.5 cm., an
Note 1.  The long tendon of origin of the biceps brachii also acts as one of the ligaments of this joint. See the observations on page 287, on the function of the muscles passing over more than one joint. [back]

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