Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
Fat is entirely absent in the subcutaneous tissue of the eyelids, of the penis and scrotum, and of the labia minora. It varies in thickness in different parts of the body; in the groin it is so thick that it may be subdivided into several laminæ. Beneath the fatty layer there is generally another layer of superficial fascia, comparatively devoid of adipose tissue, in which the trunks of the subcutaneous vessels and nerves are found, as the superficial epigastric vessels in the abdominal region, the superficial veins in the forearm, the saphenous veins in the leg and thigh, and the superficial lymph glands. Certain cutaneous muscles also are situated in the superficial fascia, as the Platysma in the neck, and the Orbicularis oculi around the eyelids. This fascia is most distinct at the lower part of the abdomen, perineum, and extremities; it is very thin in those regions where muscular fibers are inserted into the integument, as on the side of the neck, the face, and around the margin of the anus. It is very dense in the scalp, in the palms of the hands, and soles of the feet, forming a fibro-fatty layer, which binds the integument firmly to the underlying structures.
The superficial fascia connects the skin to the subjacent parts, facilitates the movement of the skin, serves as a soft nidus for the passage of vessels and nerves to the integument, and retains the warmth of the body, since the fat contained in its areolæ is a bad conductor of heat.
The deep fascia is a dense, inelastic, fibrous membrane, forming sheaths for the muscles, and in some cases affording them broad surfaces for attachment. It consists of shining tendinous fibers, placed parallel with one another, and connected together by other fibers disposed in a rectilinear manner. It forms a strong investment which not only binds down collectively the muscles in each region, but gives a separate sheath to each, as well as to the vessels and nerves. The fasciæ are thick in unprotected situations, as on the lateral side of a limb, and thinner on the medial side. The deep fasciæ assist the muscles in their actions, by the degree of tension and pressure they make upon their surfaces; the degree of tension and pressure is regulated by the associated muscles, as, for instance, by the Tensor fasciæ latæ and Glutæus maximus in the thigh, by the Biceps in the upper and lower extremities, and Palmaris longus in the hand. In the limbs, the fasciæ not only invest the entire limb, but give off septa which separate the various muscles, and are attached to the periosteum: these prolongations of fasciæ are usually spoken of as intermuscular septa.
The Fasciæ and Muscles may be arranged, according to the general division of the body, into those of the head and neck; of the trunk; of the upper extremity; and of the lower extremity.
4. The Fasciæ and Muscles of the Head. a. The Muscles of the Scalp
The Skin of the Scalp.This is thicker than in any other part of the body. It is intimately adherent to the superficial fascia, which attaches it firmly to the underlying aponeurosis and muscle. Movements of the muscle move the skin. The hair follicles are very closely set together, and extend throughout the whole thickness of the skin. It also contains a number of sebaceous glands.
The superficial fascia in the cranial region is a firm, dense, fibro-fatty layer, intimately adherent to the integument, and to the Epicranius and its tendinous aponeurosis; it is continuous, behind, with the superficial fascia at the back of the neck; and, laterally, is continued over the temporal fascia. It contains between its layers the superficial vessels and nerves and much granular fat.
The Epicranius (Occipitofrontalis) (Fig. 378) is a broad, musculofibrous layer,