|Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.|
|Triangularis, which cross each other at the angle of the mouth; those from the Caninus passing to the lower lip, and those from the Triangularis to the upper lip, along which they run, to be inserted into the skin near the median line. In addition to these there are fibers from the Quadratus labii superioris, the Zygomaticus, and the Quadratus labii inferioris; these intermingle with the transverse fibers above described, and have principally an oblique direction. The proper fibers of the lips are oblique, and pass from the under surface of the skin to the mucous membrane, through the thickness of the lip. Finally there are fibers by which the muscle is connected with the maxillæ and the septum of the nose above and with the mandible below. In the upper lip these consist of two bands, lateral and medial, on either side of the middle line; the lateral band (m. incisivus labii superioris) arises from the alveolar border of the maxilla, opposite the lateral incisor tooth, and arching lateralward is continuous with the other muscles at the angle of the mouth; the medial band (m. nasolabialis) connects the upper lip to the back of the septum of the nose. The interval between the two medial bands corresponds with the depression, called the philtrum, seen on the lip beneath the septum of the nose. The additional fibers for the lower lip constitute a slip (m. incisivus labii inferioris) on either side of the middle line; this arises from the mandible, lateral to the Mentalis, and intermingles with the other muscles at the angle of the mouth.|
| The Risorius arises in the fascia over the Masseter and, passing horizontally forward, superficial to the Platysma, is inserted into the skin at the angle of the mouth (Fig. 378). It is a narrow bundle of fibers, broadest at its origin, but varies much in its size and form.|
Variations.The zygomatic head of the Quadratus labii superioris and Risorius are frequently absent and more rarely the Zygomaticus. The Zygomaticus and Risorius may be doubled or the latter greatly enlarged or blended with the Platysma.
Nerves.The muscles in this group are all supplied by the facial nerve.
Actions.The Orbicularis oris in its ordinary action effects the direct closure of the lips; by its deep fibers, assisted by the oblique ones, it closely applies the lips to the alveolar arch. The superficial part, consisting principally of the decussating fibers, brings the lips together and also protrudes them forward. The Buccinators compress the cheeks, so that, during the process of mastication, the food is kept under the immediate pressure of the teeth. When the cheeks have been previously distended with air, the Buccinator muscles expel it from between the lips, as in blowing a trumpet; hence the name (buccina, a trumpet). The Risorius retracts the angle of the mouth, and produces an unpleasant grinning expression.
| For more extensive consideration of the facial muscles, see Charles Darwin, Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.|
|4e. The Muscles of Mastication|
| The chief muscles of mastication are:|
Parotideomasseteric Fascia (masseteric fascia).Covering the Masseter, and firmly connected with it, is a strong layer of fascia derived from the deep cervical fascia. Above, this fascia is attached to the lower border of the zygomatic arch, and behind, it invests the parotid gland.
| The Masseter (Fig. 378) is a thick, somewhat quadrilateral muscle, consisting of two portions, superficial and deep. The superficial portion, the larger, arises by a thick, tendinous aponeurosis from the zygomatic process of the maxilla, and from the anterior two-thirds of the lower border of the zygomatic arch; its fibers pass downward and backward, to be inserted into the angle and lower half of the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible. The deep portion is much smaller,