Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
described. It is a fibrous cord, which is attached to the tip of the styloid process of the temporal and the lesser cornu of the hyoid bone. It frequently contains a little cartilage in its center, is often partially ossified, and in many animals forms a distinct bone, the epihyal.
The Mylohyoideus (Mylohyoid muscle), flat and triangular, is situated immediately above the anterior belly of the Digastricus, and forms, with its fellow of the opposite side, a muscular floor for the cavity of the mouth. It arises from the whole length of the mylohyoid line of the mandible, extending from the symphysis in front to the last molar tooth behind. The posterior fibers pass medialward and slightly downward, to be inserted into the body of the hyoid bone. The middle and anterior fibers are inserted into a median fibrous raphé extending from the symphysis menti to the hyoid bone, where they joint at an angle with the fibers of the opposite muscle. This median raphé is sometimes wanting; the fibers of the two muscles are then continuous.
Variations.It may be united to or replaced by the anterior belly of the Digastricus; accessory slips to other hyoid muscles are frequent.
The Geniohyoideus (Geniohyoid muscle) is a narrow muscle, situated above the medial border of the Mylohyoideus. It arises from the inferior mental spine on the back of the symphysis menti, and runs backward and slightly downward, to be inserted into the anterior surface of the body of the hyoid bone; it lies in contact with its fellow of the opposite side.
Variations.It may be blended with the one on opposite side or double; slips to greater cornu of hyoid bone and Genioglossus occur.
Nerves.The Mylohyoideus and anterior belly of the Digastricus are supplied by the mylohyoid branch of the inferior alveolar; the Stylohyoideus and posterior belly of the Digastricus, by the facial; the Geniohyoideus, by the hypoglossal.
Actions.These muscles perform two very important actions. During the act of deglutition they raise the hyoid bone, and with it the base of the tongue; when the hyoid bone is fixed by its depressors and those of the larynx, they depress the mandible. During the first act of deglutition, when the mass of food is being driven from the mouth into the pharynx, the hyoid bone and with it the tongue, is carried upward and forward by the anterior bellies of the Digastrici, the Mylohyoidei, and Geniohyoidei. In the second act, when the mass is passing through the pharynx, the direct elevation of the hyoid bone takes place by the combined action of all the muscles; and after the food has passed, the hyoid bone is carried upward and backward by the posterior bellies of the Digastrici and the Stylohyoidei, which assist in preventing the return of the food into the mouth.
The infrahyoid muscles are:
The Sternohyoideus (Sternohyoid muscle) is a thin, narrow muscle, which arises from the posterior surface of the medial end of the clavicle, the posterior sternoclavicular ligament, and the upper and posterior part of the manubrium sterni. Passing upward and medialward, it is inserted, by short, tendinous fibers, into the lower border of the body of the hyoid bone. Below, this muscle is separated from its fellow by a considerable interval; but the two muscles come into contact with one another in the middle of their course, and from this upward, lie side by side. It sometimes presents, immediately above its origin, a transverse tendinous inscription.
The Sternothyreoideus (Sternothyroid muscle) is shorter and wider than the preceding muscle, beneath which it is situated. It arises from the posterior surface of the manubrium sterni, below the origin of the Sternohyoideus, and from the edge of the cartilage of the first rib, and sometimes that of the second rib, it is inserted