Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
tendon of this muscle passes across, and is united with, the posterior part of the capsule of the shoulder-joint.
Variations.It is sometimes inseparable from the Infraspinatus.
The Teres major(Fig. 412) is a thick but somewhat flattened muscle, which arises from the oval area on the dorsal surface of the inferior angle of the scapula, and from the fibrous septa interposed between the muscle and the Teres minor and Infraspinatus; the fibers are directed upward and lateralward, and end in a flat tendon, about 5 cm. long, which is inserted into the crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus. The tendon, at its insertion, lies behind that of the Latissimus dorsi, from which it is separated by a bursa, the two tendons being, however, united along their lower borders for a short distance.
Nerves.The Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus are supplied by the fifth and sixth cervical nerves through the suprascapular nerve; the Teres minor, by the fifth cervical, through the axillary; and the Teres major, by the fifth and sixth cervical, through the lowest subscapular.
Actions.The Supraspinatus assists the Deltoideus in raising the arm from the side of the trunk and fixes the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity. The Infraspinatus and Teres minor rotate the head of the humerus outward; they also assist in carrying the arm backward. One of the most important uses of these three muscles is to protect the shoulder-joint, the Supraspinatus supporting it above, and the Infraspinatus and Teres minor behind. The Teres major assists the Latissimus dorsi in drawing the previously raised humerus downward and backward, and in rotating it inward; when the arm is fixed it may assist the Pectorales and the Latissimus dorsi in drawing the trunk forward.
7d. The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Arm
The muscles of the arm are:
Brachial Fascia (fascia brachii; deep fascia of the arm).The brachial fascia is continuous with that covering the Deltoideus and the Pectoralis major, by means of which it is attached, above, to the clavicle, acromion, and spine of the scapula; it forms a thin, loose, membranous sheath for the muscles of the arm, and sends septa between them; it is composed of fibers disposed in a circular or spiral direction, and connected together by vertical and oblique fibers. It differs in thickness at different parts, being thin over the Biceps brachii, but thicker where it covers the Triceps brachii, and over the epicondyles of the humerus: it is strengthened by fibrous aponeuroses, derived from the Pectoralis major and Latissimus dorsi medially, and from the Deltoideus laterally. On either side it gives off a strong intermuscular septum, which is attached to the corresponding supracondylar ridge and epicondyle of the humerus. The lateral intermuscular septum extends from the lower part of the crest of the greater tubercle, along the lateral supracondylar ridge, to the lateral epicondyle; it is blended with the tendon of the Deltoideus, gives attachment to the Triceps brachii behind, to the Brachialis, Brachioradialis, and Extensor carpi radialis longus in front, and is perforated by the radial nerve and profunda branch of the branchial artery. The medial intermuscular septum, thicker than the preceding, extends from the lower part of the crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus below the Teres major, along the medial supracondylar ridge to the medial epicondyle; it is blended with the tendon of the Coracobrachialis, and affords attachment to the Triceps brachii behind and the Brachialis in front. It is perforated by the ulnar nerve, the superior ulnar collateral artery, and the posterior branch of the inferior ulnar collateral artery. At the elbow, the deep fascia is attached to the epicondyles of the humerus and the olecranon of the ulna, and is continuous with the deep fascia of the forearm.