Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
it covers the Pectineus, Adductor longus, and Gracilis, and, passing behind the sheath of the femoral vessels, to which it is closely united, is continuous with the iliopectineal fascia, and is attached to the pectineal line.
From this description it may be observed that the superficial portion of the fascia lata lies in front of the femoral vessels, and the deep portion behind them, so that an apparent aperture exists between the two, through which the great saphenous passes to join the femoral vein.
The Sartorius, the longest muscle in the body, is narrow and ribbon-like; it arises by tendinous fibers from the anterior superior iliac spine and the upper half of the notch below it. It passes obliquely across the upper and anterior part of the thigh, from the lateral to the medial side of the limb, then descends vertically, as far as the medial side of the knee, passing behind the medial condyle of the femur to end in a tendon. This curves obliquely forward and expands into a broad aponeurosis, which is inserted, in front of the Gracilis and Semitendinous, into the upper part of the medial surface of the body of the tibia, nearly as far forward as the anterior crest. The upper part of the aponeurosis is curved backward over the upper edge of the tendon of the Gracilis so as to be inserted behind it. An offset, from its upper margin, blends with the capsule of the knee-joint, and another from its lower border, with the fascia on the medial side of the leg.
Variations.Slips of origin from the outer end of the inguinal ligament, the notch of the ilium, the ilio-pectineal line or the pubis occur. The muscle may be split into two parts, and one part may be inserted into the fascia lata, the femur, the ligament of the patella or the tendon of the Semitendinosus. The tendon of insertion may end in the fascia lata, the capsule of the knee-joint, or the fascia of the leg. The muscle may be absent.
The Quadriceps femoris (Quadriceps extensor) includes the four remaining muscles on the front of the thigh. It is the great extensor muscle of the leg, forming a large fleshy mass which covers the front and sides of the femur. It is subdivided into separate portions, which have received distinctive names. One occupying the middle of the thigh, and connected above with the ilium, is called from its straight course the Rectus femoris. The other three lie in immediate connection with the body of the femur, which they cover from the trochanters to the condyles. The portion on the lateral side of the femur is termed the Vastus lateralis; that covering the medial side, the Vastus medialis; and that in front, the Vastus intermedius.
The Rectus femoris is situated in the middle of the front of the thigh; it is fusiform in shape, and its superficial fibers are arranged in a bipenniform manner, the deep fibers running straight down to the deep aponeurosis. It arises by two tendons: one, the anterior or straight, from the anterior inferior iliac spine; the other, the posterior or reflected, from a groove above the brim of the acetabulum. The two unite at an acute angle, and spread into an aponeurosis which is prolonged downward on the anterior surface of the muscle, and from this the muscular fibers arise. The muscle ends in a broad and thick aponeurosis which occupies the lower two-thirds of its posterior surface, and, gradually becoming narrowed into a flattened tendon, is inserted into the base of the patella.
The Vastus lateralis (Vastus externus) is the largest part of the Quadriceps femoris. It arises by a broad aponeurosis, which is attached to the upper part of the intertrochanteric line, to the anterior and inferior borders of the greater trochanter, to the lateral lip of the gluteal tuberosity, and to the upper half of the lateral lip of the linea aspera; this aponeurosis covers the upper three-fourths of the muscle, and from its deep surface many fibers take origin. A few additional fibers arise from the tendon of the Glutæus maximus, and from the lateral intermuscular septum between the Vastus lateralis and short head of the Biceps femoris. The fibers form a large fleshy mass, which is attached to a strong aponeurosis, placed on the deep surface of the lower part of the muscle: this aponeurosis becomes