Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
obturator nerve reaches the thigh by passing in front of the muscle, and the posterior branch by piercing it.
Nerves.The Glutæus maximus is supplied by the fifth lumbar and first and second sacra nerves through the inferior gluteal nerve; the Glutæi medius and minimus and the Tensor fasciæ latæ by the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves through the superior gluteal; the Piriformis is supplied by the first and second sacral nerves; the Gemellus inferior and Quadratus femoris by the last lumbar and first sacral nerves; the Gemellus superior and Obturator internus by the first, second, and third sacral nerves, and the Obturator externus by the third and fourth lumbar nerves through the obturator.
Actions.When the Glutæus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the femur and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body. Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur; this is especially obvious in standing on one leg. Its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stooping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, and Semimembranosus. The Glutæus maximus is a tensor of the fascia lata, and by its connection with the iliotibial band steadies the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia during standing, when the Extensor muscles are relaxed. The lower part of the muscle also acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The Glutæi medius and minimus abduct the thigh, when the limb is extended, and are principally called into action in supporting the body on one limb, in conjunction with the Tensor fasciæ latæ. Their anterior fibers, by drawing the greater trochanter forward, rotate the thigh inward, in which action they are also assisted by the Tensor fasciæ latæ. The Tensor fasciæ latæ is a tensor of the fascia lata; continuing its action, the oblique direction of its fibers enables it to abduct the thigh and to rotate it inward. In the erect posture, acting from below, it will serve to steady the pelvis upon the head of the femur; and by means of the iliotibial band it steadies the condyles of the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia, and assists the Glutæus maximus in supporting the knee in the extended position. The remaining muscles are powerful external rotators of the thigh. In the sitting posture, when the thigh is flexed upon the pelvis, their action as rotators ceases, and they become abductors, with the exception of the Obturator externus, which still rotates the femur outward.
4. The Posterior Femoral Muscles (Hamstring Muscles) (Fig. 434).
The Biceps femoris (Biceps) is situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the thigh. It has two heads of origin; one, the long head,arises from the lower and inner