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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
sudoriferous, and mammary glands, the hairs and nails, the epithelium of the nose and adjacent air sinuses, and that of the cheeks and roof of the mouth. From it also are derived the enamel of the teeth, and the anterior lobe of the hypophysis cerebri, the epithelium of the cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal glands, and the neuro-epithelium of the sense organs.

Entoderm.—The entoderm consists at first of flattened cells, which subsequently become columnar. It forms the epithelial lining of the whole of the digestive tube excepting part of the mouth and pharynx and the terminal part of the rectum (which are lined by involutions of the ectoderm), the lining cells of all the glands which open into the digestive tube, including those of the liver and pancreas, the epithelium of the auditory tube and tympanic cavity, of the trachea, bronchi, and air cells of the lungs, of the urinary bladder and part of the urethra, and that which lines the follicles of the thyroid gland and thymus.


FIG. 16– A series of transverse sections through an embryo of the dog. (After Bonnet.) Section I is the most anterior. In V the neural plate is spread out nearly flat. The series shows the uprising of the neural folds to form the neural canal. a. Aortæ. c. Intermediate cell mass. ect. Ectoderm. ent. Entoderm. h, h. Rudiments of endothelial heart tubes. In III, IV, and V the scattered cells represented between the entoderm and splanchnic layer of mesoderm are the vasoformative cells which give origin in front, according to Bonnet, to the heart tubes, h; l.p. Lateral plate still undivided in I, II, and III; in IV and V split into somatic (sm) and splanchnic (sp) layers of mesoderm. mes. Mesoderm. p. Pericardium. so. Primitive segment. (See enlarged image)


Mesoderm.—The mesoderm consists of loosely arranged branched cells surrounded by a considerable amount of intercellular fluid. From it the remaining tissues of the body are developed. The endothelial lining of the heart and blood-vessels and the blood corpuscles are, however, regarded by some as being of entodermal origin.
  As the mesoderm develops between the ectoderm and entoderm it is separated into lateral halves by the neural tube and notochord, presently to be described.

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