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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
and the Abductor digiti quinti. The Interossei dorsales are abductors from an imaginary line passing through the axis of the second toe, so that the first muscle draws the second toe medialward, toward the great toe, the second muscle draws the same toe lateralward, and the third and fourth draw the third and fourth toes in the same direction. Like the Interossei in the hand, each assists in flexing the first phalanx and extending the second and third phalanges. The Abductor hallucis abducts the great toe from the second, and also flexes its proximal phalanx. In the same way the action of the Abductor digiti quinti is twofold, as an abductor of this toe from the fourth, and also as a flexor of its proximal phalanx. The adductors are the Interossei plantares and the Adductor hallucis. The Interossei plantares adduct the third, fourth, and fifth toes toward the imaginary line passing through the second toe, and by means of their insertions into the aponeuroses of the Extensor tendons they assist in flexing the proximal phalanges and extending the middle and terminal phalanges. The oblique head of the Adductor hallucis is chiefly concerned in adducting the great toe toward the second one, but also assists in flexing this toe; the transverse head approximates all the toes and thus increases the curve of the transverse arch of the metatarsus. The flexors are the Flexor digitorum brevis, the Quadratus plantæ, the Flexor hallucis brevis, the Flexor digiti quinti brevis, and the Lumbricales. The Flexor digitorum brevis flexes the second phalanges upon the first, and, continuing its action, flexes the first phalanges also, and brings the toes together. The Quadratus plantæ assists the Flexor digitorum longus and converts the oblique pull of the tendons of that muscle into a direct backward pull upon the toes. The Flexor digiti quinti brevis flexes the little toe and draws its metatarsal bone downward and medialward. The Lumbricales, like the corresponding muscles in the hand, assist in flexing the proximal phalanges, and by their insertions into the tendons of the Extensor digitorum longus aid that muscle in straightening the middle and terminal phalanges. The Extensor digitorum brevis extends the first phalanx of the great toe and assists the long Extensor in extending the next three toes, and at the same time gives to the toes a lateral direction when they are extended.
 
Bibliography
 
  BARDEEN, C. R.: Development and Variation, etc., of the Inferior Extremity, etc., Am. Jour. Anat., 1907, vi.
  BARDEEN and LEWIS: Development of the Back, Body Wall and Limbs in Man, Am. Jour. Anat., 1901, i.
  EISLER, P.: Die Muskeln des Stammes, v. Bardeleben’s Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, Bd. ii, Abt. ii, Teil 1.
  FICK, R.: Anatomie und Mechanik der Gelenke unter Berücksichtigung der bewegenden Muskeln, v. Bardeleben’s Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, Bd. ii, Abt. i, Teil 2 and 3.
  FROHSE and FRÄNKEL: Die Muskeln des Menschlichen Beines; Die Muskeln des Menschlichen Armes, Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, von Bardeleben, Bd. ii, Abt. ii, Teil 2, A and B.
  HENLE, J.: Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen, 1871–79.
  KOCH, J. C.: The Laws of Bone Architecture, Am. Jour. Anat., 1917, xxi.
  LE. DOUBLE: Traité des Variations du Systeme Musculaire de L’Homme, 1897.
  LEWIS, W. H.: Development of the Arm in Man, Am. Jour. Anat., 1901, i.
  LEWIS, W. H.: Development of the Muscular System, Keibel and Mall, Manual of Human Embryology.
  POIRIER, P., et CHARPY, A.: Traité d’Anatomie, 1899–1901.
  TESTUT, L.: Traité d’Anatomie Humaine, 1893–94.
  WOLFF, J.: Das Gesetz der Transformation der Knochen, Berlin, 1892.

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