Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
Branches.Its branches are:
The Pharyngeal Branches (rami pharyngei) are three or four in number. Two of these descend to supply the Constrictores pharyngis medius and inferior and the Stylopharyngeus, ramifying in their substance and in the mucous membrane lining them.
The Palatine Branch varies in size, and may take the place of the ascending palatine branch of the facial artery, when that vessel is small. It passes inward upon the Constrictor pharyngis superior, sends ramifications to the soft palate and tonsil, and supplies a branch to the auditory tube.
The Prevertebral Branches are numerous small vessels, which supply the Longi capitis and colli, the sympathetic trunk, the hypoglossal and vagus nerves, and the lymph glands; they anastomose with the ascending cervical artery.
The Inferior Tympanic Artery (a. tympanica inferior) is a small branch which passes through a minute foramen in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, in company with the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, to supply the medial wall of the tympanic cavity and anastomose with the other tympanic arteries.
The Meningeal Branches are several small vessels, which supply the dura mater. One, the posterior meningeal, enters the cranium through the jugular foramen; a second passes through the foramen lacerum; and occasionally a third through the canal for the hypoglossal nerve.
7. The superficial temporal artery (a. temporalis superficialis) (Fig. 508), the smaller of the two terminal branches of the external carotid, appears, from its direction, to be the continuation of that vessel. It begins in the substance of the parotid gland, behind the neck of the mandible, and corsses over the posterior root of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone; about 5 cm. above this process it divides into two branches, a frontal and a parietal.
Relations.As it crosses the zygomatic process, it is covered by the Auricularis anterior muscle, and by a dense fascia; it is crossed by the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and one or two veins, and is accompanied by the auriculotemporal nerve, which lies immediately behind it.
Branches.Besides some twigs to the parotid gland, to the temporomandibular joint, and to the Masseter muscle, its branches are:
The Transverse Facial Artery (a. transversa faciei) is givien off from the superficial temporal before that vessel quits the parotid gland; running forward through the substance of the gland, it passes transversely across the side of the face, between the parotid duct and the lower border of the zygomatic arch, and divides into numerous branches, which supply the parotid gland and duct, the Masseter, and the integument, and anastomose with the external maxillary, masseteric, buccinator, and infraorbital arteries. This vessel rests on the Masseter, and is accompanied by one or two branches of the facial nerve.
The Middle Temporal Artery (a. temporalis media) arises immediately above the zygomatic arch, and, perforating the temporal fascia, gives branches to the Temporalis, anastomosing with the deep temporal branches of the internal maxillary. It occasionally gives off a zygomaticoörbital branch, which runs along the upper border of the zygomatic arch, between the two layers of the temporal fascia, to the lateral angle of the orbit. This branch, which may arise directly from the