Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
length of the fetus, i.e., about 50 cm., but it may be greatly diminished or increased. The rudiment of the umbilical cord is represented by the tissue which connects the rapidly growing embryo with the extra-embryonic area of the ovum. Included in this tissue are the body-stalk and the vitelline ductthe former containing the allantoic diverticulum and the umbilical vessels, the latter forming the communication between the digestive tube and the yolk-sac. The body-stalk is the posterior segment of the embryonic area, and is attached to the chorion. It consists of a plate of mesoderm covered by thickened ectoderm on which a trace of the neural groove can be seen, indicating its continuity with the embryo. Running through its mesoderm are the two umbilical arteries and the two umbilical veins, together with the canal of the allantoisthe last being lined by entoderm (Fig. 31). Its dorsal surface is covered by the amnion, while its ventral surface is bounded by the extra-embryonic celom, and is in contact with the vitelline duct and yolk-sac. With the rapid elongation of the embryo and the formation of the tail fold, the body stalk comes to lie on the ventral surface of the embryo (Figs. 27 and 28), where its mesoderm blends with that of the yolk-sac and the vitelline duct. The lateral leaves of somatopleure then grow round on each side, and, meeting on the ventral aspect of the allantois, enclose the vitelline duct and vessels, together with a part of the extra-embryonic celom; the latter is ultimately obliterated. The cord is covered by a layer of ectoderm which is continuous with that of the amnion, and its various constitutents are enveloped by embryonic gelatinous tissue, jelly of Wharton. The vitelline vessels and duct, together with the right umbilical vein, undergo atrophy and disappear; and thus the cord, at birth, contains a pair of umbilical arteries and one (the left) umbilical vein.
Implantation or Imbedding of the Ovum.As described (page 44), fertilization of the ovum occurs in the lateral or ampullary end of the uterine tube and is immediately followed by segmentation. On reaching the cavity of the uterus the segmented ovum adheres like a parasite to the uterine mucous membrane, destroys the epithelium over the area of contact, and excavates for itself a cavity in the mucous membrane in which it becomes imbedded. In the ovum described by