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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
  The Transverse Scapular Artery (a. transversa scapulæ suprascapular artery) passes at first downward and lateralward across the Scalenus anterior and phrenic nerve, being covered by the Sternocleidomastoideus; it then crosses the subclavian artery and the brachial plexus, and runs behind and parallel with the clavicle and Subclavius, and beneath the inferior belly of the Omohyoideus, to the superior border of the scapula; it passes over the superior transverse ligament of the scapula which separates it from the suprascapular nerve, and enters the supraspinatous fossa (Fig. 521). In this situation it lies close to the bone, and ramifies between it and the Supraspinatus, to which it supplies branches. It then descends behind the neck of the scapula, through the great scapular notch and under cover of the inferior transverse ligament, to reach the infraspinatous fossa, where it anastomoses with the scapular circumflex and the descending branch of the transverse cervical. Besides distributing branches to the Sternocleidomastoideus, Subclavius, and neighboring muscles, it gives off a suprasternal branch, which crosses over the sternal end of the clavicle to the skin of the upper part of the chest; and an acromial branch, which pierces the Trapezius and supplies the skin over the acromion, anastomosing with the thoracoacromial artery. As the artery passes over the superior transverse ligament of the scapula, it sends a branch into the subscapular fossa, where it ramifies beneath the Subscapularis, and anastomoses with the subscapular artery and with the descending branch of the transverse cervical. It also sends articular branches to the acromioclavicular and shoulder-joints, and a nutrient artery to the clavicle.


FIG. 521– The scapular and circumflex arteries. (See enlarged image)

  The Transverse Cervical Artery (a. transversa colli; transversalis colli artery) lies at a higher level than the transverse scapular; it passes transversely above the inferior belly of the Omohyoideus to the anterior margin of the Trapezius, beneath which it divides into an ascending and a descending branch. It crosses in front of the phrenic nerve and the Scaleni, and in front of or between the divisions of the brachial plexus, and is covered by the Platysma and Sternocleidomastoideus, and crossed by the Omohyoideus and Trapezius.
  The ascending branch (ramus ascendens; superficial cervical artery) ascends beneath the anterior margin of the Trapezius, distributing branches to it, and to the neighboring muscles and lymph glands in the neck, and anastomosing with the superficial branch of the descending ramus of the occipital artery.
  The descending branch (ramus descendens; posterior scapular artery) (Fig. 521) passes beneath the Levator scapulæ to the medial angle of the scapula, and then descends under the Rhomboidei along the vertebral border of that bone as far as the inferior angle. It supplies the Rhomboidei, Latissimus dorsi and Trapezius, and anastomoses with the transverse scapular and subscapular arteries, and with the posterior branches of some of the intercostal arteries.

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