Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
3. The Middle Cardiac Vein (v. cordis media) commences at the apex of the heart, ascends in the posterior longitudinal sulcus, and ends in the coronary sinus near its right extremity.
4. The Posterior Vein of the Left Ventricle (v. posterior ventriculi sinistri) runs on the diaphragmatic surface of the left ventricle to the coronary sinus, but may end in the great cardiac vein.
5. The Oblique Vein of the Left Atrium (v. obliqua atrii sinistri [Marshalli]; oblique vein of Marshall) is a small vessel which descends obliquely on the back of the left atrium and ends in the coronary sinus near its left extremity; it is continuous above with the ligament of the left vena cava (lig. venæ cavæ sinistræ vestigial fold of Marshall), and the two structures form the remnant of the left Cuvierian duct.
The following cardiac veins do not end in the coronary sinus: (1) the anterior cardiac veins, comprising three or four small vessels which collect blood from the front of the right ventricle and open into the right atrium; the right marginal vein frequently opens into the right atrium, and is therefore sometimes regarded as belonging to this group; (2) the smallest cardiac veins (veins of Thebesius), consisting of a number of minute veins which arise in the muscular wall of the heart; the majority open into the atria, but a few end in the ventricles.
3b. The Veins of the Head and Neck
The veins of the head and neck may be subdivided into three groups: (1) The veins of the exterior of the head and face. (2) The veins of the neck. (3) The diploic veins, the veins of the brain, and the venous sinuses of the dura mater.