Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
arises in the upper part of this arch. The cartilage of the third arch gives origin to the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. The ventral ends of the second and third arches unite with those of the opposite side, and form a transverse band, from which the body of the hyoid bone and the posterior part of the tongue are developed. The ventral portions of the cartilages of the fourth and fifth arches unite to form the thyroid cartilage; from the cartilages of the sixth arch the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages and the cartilages of the trachea are developed. The mandibular and hyoid arches grow more rapidly than those behind them, with the result that the latter become, to a certain extent, telescoped within the former, and a deep depression, the sinus cervicalis, is formed on either side of the neck. This sinus is bounded in front by the hyoid arch, and behind by the thoracic wall; it is ultimately obliterated by the fusion of its walls.
FIG. 44 Under surface of the head of a human embryo about twenty-nine days old. (After His.) (See enlarged image)
From the first branchial groove the concha auriculæ and external acoustic meatus are developed, while around the groove there appear, on the mandibular and hyoid arches, a number of swellings from which the auricula or pinna is formed. The first pharyngeal pouch is prolonged dorsally to form the auditory tube and the tympanic cavity; the closing membrane between the mandibular and hyoid arches is invaded by mesoderm, and forms the tympanic membrane. No traces of the second, third, and fourth branchial grooves persist. The inner part of the second pharyngeal pouch is named the sinus tonsillaris; in it the tonsil is developed, above which a trace of the sinus persists as the supratonsillar fossa. The fossa of Rosenmüller or lateral recess of the pharynx is by some regarded as a persistent part of the second pharyngeal pouch, but it is probably developed as a secondary formation. From the third pharyngeal pouch the thymus arises as an entodermal diverticulum on either side, and from the fourth pouches small diverticula project and become incorporated with the thymus, but in man these diverticula probably never form true thymus tissue. The parathyroids also arise as diverticula from the third and fourth pouches. From the fifth pouches the ultimobranchial bodies originate and are enveloped by the lateral prolongations of the median thyroid rudiment; they do not, however, form true thyroid tissue, nor are any traces of them found in the human adult.
The Nose and Face.During the third week two areas of thickened ectoderm, the olfactory areas, appear immediately under the fore-brain in the anterior wall of the stomodeum, one on either side of a region termed the fronto-nasal process(Fig. 44). By the upgrowth of the surrounding parts these areas are converted into pits,