Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
The Lymph Glands of the NeckThe lymph glands of the neck include the following groups:
The submaxillary glands (lymphoglandulæ submaxillares) (Fig. 604), three to six in number, are placed beneath the body of the mandible in the submaxillary triangle, and rest on the superficial surface of the submaxillary salivary gland. One gland, the middle gland of Stahr, which lies on the external maxillary artery as it turns over the mandible, is the most constant of the series; small lymph glands are sometimes found on the deep surface of the submaxillary salivary glands. The afferents of the submaxillary glands drain the medial palpebral commissure, the cheek, the side of the nose, the upper lip, the lateral part of the lower lip, the gums, and the anterior part of the margin of the tongue; efferent vessels from the facial and submental glands also enter the submaxillary glands. Their efferent vessels pass to the superior deep cervical glands.
The submental or suprahyoid glands are situated between the anterior bellies of the Digastrici. Their afferents drain the central portions of the lower lip and floor of the mouth and the apex of the tongue; their efferents pass partly to the submaxillary glands and partly to a gland of the deep cervical group situated on the internal jugular vein at the level of the cricoid cartilage.
The superficial cervical glands (lymphoglandulæ cervicales superficiales) lie in close relationship with the external jugular vein as it emerges from the parotid gland, and, therefore, superficial to the Sternocleidomastoideus. Their afferents drain the lower parts of the auricula and parotid region, while their efferents pass around the anterior margin of the Sternocleidomastoideus to join the superior deep cervical glands.
The anterior cervical glands form an irregular and inconstant group on the front of the larynx and trachea. They may be divided into (a) a superficial set, placed on the anterior jugular vein; (b) a deeper set, which is further subdivided into prelaryngeal, on the middle cricothyroid ligament, and pretracheal, on the front of the trachea. This deeper set drains the lower part of the larynx, the thyroid gland, and the upper part of the trachea; its efferents pass to the lowest of the superior deep cervical glands.
The deep cervical glands (lymphoglandulæ cervicales profundæ) (Figs. 602,605) are numerous and of large size: they form a chain along the carotid sheath, lying by the side of the pharynx, esophagus, and trachea, and extending from the base of the skull to the root of the neck. They are usually described in two groups: (1) the superior deep cervical glands lying under the Sternocleidomastoideus in close relation with the accessory nerve and the internal jugular vein, some of the glands lying in front of and others behind the vessel; (2) the inferior deep cervical glands extending beyond the posterior margin of the Sternocleidomastoideus into the supraclavicular triangle, where they are closely related to the brachial plexus and subclavian vein. A few minute paratracheal glands are situated alongside the recurrent nerves on the lateral aspects of the trachea and esophagus. The superior deep cervical glands drain the occipital portion of the scalp, the auricula, the back of the neck, a considerable part of the tongue, the larynx, thyroid gland, trachea, nasal part of the pharynx, nasal cavities, palate, and esophagus. They receive also the efferent vessels from all the other glands of the head and neck, except those from the inferior deep cervical glands. The inferior deep cervical glands drain the back of the scalp and neck, the superficial pectoral region, part of the arm (see page 701), and, occasionally, part of the superior surface of the