Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
Lymphatic Vessels of the Colon (Fig. 617).The lymphatic vessels of the ascending and transverse parts of the colon finally end in the mesenteric glands, after traversing the right colic and mesocolic glands. Those of the descending and iliac sigmoid parts of the colon are interrupted by the small glands on the branches of the left colic and sigmoid arteries, and ultimately end in the preaortic glands around the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery.
Lymphatic Vessels of the Anus, Anal Canal, and Rectum.The lymphatics from the anus pass forward and end with those of the integument of the perineum and scrotum in the superficial inguinal glands; those from the anal canal accompany the middle and inferior hemorrhoidal arteries, and end in the hypogastric glands; while the vessels from the rectum traverse the pararectal glands and pass to those in the sigmoid mesocolon; the efferents of the latter terminate in the preaortic glands around the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery.
The Lymphatic Vessels of the Liver are divisible into two sets, superficial and deep. The former arise in the subperitoneal areolar tissue over the entire surface of the organ, and may be grouped into (a) those on the convex surface, (b) those on the inferior surface.
(a) On the convex surface: The vessels from the back part of this surface reach their terminal glands by three different routes; the vessels of the middle set, five or six in number, pass through the vena-caval foramen in the diaphragm and end in one or two glands which are situated around the terminal part of the inferior vena cava; a few vessels from the left side pass backward toward the esophageal hiatus, and terminate in the paracardial group of superior gastric glands; the vessels from the right side, one or two in number, run on the abdominal surface of the diaphragm, and, after crossing its right crus, end in the preaortic glands which surround the origin of the celiac artery. From the portions of the right and left lobes adjacent to the falciform ligament, the lymphatic vessels converge to form two trunks, one of which accompanies the inferior vena cava through the diaphragm, and ends in the glands around the terminal part of this vessel; the other runs downward and forward, and, turning around the anterior sharp margin of the liver, accompanies the upper part of the ligamentum teres, and ends in the upper hepatic glands. From the anterior surface a few additional vessels turn around the anterior sharp margin to reach the upper hepatic glands.
(b) On the inferior surface: The vessels from this surface mostly converge to the porta hepatis, and accompany the deep lymphatics, emerging from the porta to the hepatic glands; one or two from the posterior parts of the right and caudate lobes accompany the inferior vena cava through the diaphragm, and end in the glands around the terminal part of this vein.
The deep lymphatics converge to ascending and descending trunks. The ascending trunks accompany the hepatic veins and pass through the diaphragm to end in the glands around the terminal part of the inferior vena cava. The descending trunks emerge from the porta hepatis, and end in the hepatic glands.
The Lymphatic Vessels of the Gall-bladder pass to the hepatic glands in the porta hepatis; those of the common bile duct to the hepatic glands alongside the duct and to the upper pancreaticoduodenal glands.
The Lymphatic Vessels of the Pancreas follow the course of its bloodvessels. Most of them enter the pancreaticolienal glands, but some end in the pancreaticoduodenal glands, and others in the preaortic glands near the origin of the superior mesenteric artery.
2. The lymphatic vessels of the spleen and suprarenal glands.
The Lymphatic Vessels of the Spleen, both superficial and deep, pass to the pancreaticolienal glands.
The Lymphatic Vessels of the Suprarenal Glands usually accompany the suprarenal veins, and end in the lateral aortic glands; occasionally some of them