Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
The Deep Temporal Nerves (nn. temporales profundi) are two in number, anterior and posterior. They pass above the upper border of the Pterygoideus externus and enter the deep surface of the Temporalis. The posterior branch, of small size, is placed at the back of the temporal fossa, and sometimes arises in common with the masseteric nerve. The anterior branch is frequently given off from the buccinator nerve, and then turns upward over the upper head of the Pterygoideus externus. Frequently a third or intermediate branch is present.
The Buccinator Nerve (n. buccinatorus; long buccal nerve) passes forward between the two heads of the Pterygoideus externus, and downward beneath or through the lower part of the Temporalis; it emerges from under the anterior border of the Masseter, ramifies on the surface of the Buccinator, and unites with the buccal branches of the facial nerve. It supplies a branch to the Pterygoideus externus during its passage through that muscle, and may give off the anterior deep temporal nerve. The buccinator nerve supplies the skin over the Buccinator, and the mucous membrane lining its inner surface.
External Pterygoid Nerve (n. pterygoideus externus).The nerve to the Pterygoideus externus frequently arises in conjunction with the buccinator nerve, but it may be given off separately from the anterior division of the mandibular nerve. It enters the deep surface of the muscle.
The posterior and larger division of the mandibular nerve is for the most part sensory, but receives a few filaments from the motor root. It divides into auriculotemporal, lingual, and inferior alveolar nerves.
The Auriculotemporal Nerve (n. auriculotemporalis) generally arises by two roots, between which the middle meningeal artery ascends. It runs backward beneath the Pterygoideus externus to the medial side of the neck of the mandible. It then turns upward with the superficial temporal artery, between the auricula and condyle of the mandible, under cover of the parotid gland; escaping from beneath the gland, it ascends over the zygomatic arch, and divides into superficial temporal branches.
The branches of communication of the auriculotemporal nerve are with the facial nerve and with the otic ganglion. The branches to the facial, usually two in number, pass forward from behind the neck of the mandible and join the facial nerve at the posterior border of the Masseter. The filaments to the otic ganglion are derived from the roots of the auriculotemporal nerve close to their origin.
Its branches of distribution are:
Branches to the external acoustic meatus.
The anterior auricular branches (nn. auriculares anteriores) are usually two in number; they supply the front of the upper part of the auricula, being distributed principally to the skin covering the front of the helix and tragus.
The branches to the external acoustic meatus (n. meatus auditorii externi), two in number, enter the meatus between its bony and cartilaginous portions and supply the skin lining it; the upper one sends a filament to the tympanic membrane.
The articular branches consist of one or two twigs which enter the posterior part of the temporomandibular joint.
The parotid branches (rami parotidei) supply the parotid gland.
The superficial temporal branches (rami temporales superficiales) accompany the superficial temporal artery to the vertex of the skull; they supply the skin of the temporal region and communicate with the facial and zygomaticotemporal nerves.
The Lingual Nerve (n. lingualis) supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. It lies at first beneath the Pterygoideus externus, medial to and in front of the inferior alveolar nerve, and is occasionally joined to this