Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
In the internal acoustic meatus
With the acoustic nerve.
At the genicular ganglion
With the sphenopalatine ganglion by the greater superficial petrosal nerve.
With the otic ganglion by a branch which joins the lesser superficial petrosal nerve.
With the sympathetic on the middle meningeal artery.
In the facial canal
With the auricular branch of the vagus.
At its exit from the stylomastoid foramen
With the glossopharyngeal.
With the vagus.
With the great auricular.
With the auriculotemporal.
Behind the ear
With the lesser occipital.
On the face
With the trigeminal.
In the neck
With the cutaneous cervical.
In the internal acoustic meatus some minute filaments pass from the facial to the acoustic nerve.
The greater superficial petrosal nerve (large superficial petrosal nerve) arises from the genicular ganglion, and consists chiefly of sensory branches which are distributed to the mucous membrane of the soft palate; but it probably contains a few motor fibers which form the motor root of the sphenopalatine ganglion. It passes forward through the hiatus of the facial canal, and runs in a sulcus on the anterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone beneath the semilunar ganglion, to the foramen lacerum. It receives a twig from the tympanic plexus, and in the foramen is joined by the deep petrosal, from the sympathetic plexus on the internal carotid artery, to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal which passes forward through the pterygoid canal and ends in the sphenopalatine ganglion. The genicular ganglion is connected with the otic ganglion by a branch which joins the lesser superficial petrosal nerve, and also with the sympathetic filaments accompanying the middle meningeal artery. According to Arnold, a twig passes back from the ganglion to the acoustic nerve. Just before the facial nerve emerges from the stylomastoid foramen, it generally receives a twig from the auricular branch of the vagus.
After its exit from the stylomastoid foramen, the facial nerve sends a twig to the glossopharyngeal, and communicates with the auricular branch of the vagus, with the great auricular nerve of the cervical plexus, with the auriculotemporal nerve in the parotid gland, and with the lesser occipital behind the ear; on the face with the terminal branches of the trigeminal, and in the neck with the cutaneous cervical nerve.
Branches of Distribution.The branches of distribution (Fig. 788) of the facial nerve may be thus arranged: