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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
aspect of the central canal. The fibers run forward through the medulla oblongata, and emerge in the antero-lateral sulcus between the pyramid and the olive.
  The rootlets of this nerve are collected into two bundles, which perforate the dura mater separately, opposite the hypoglossal canal in the occipital bone, and unite together after their passage through it; in some cases the canal is divided into two by a small bony spicule. The nerve descends almost vertically to a point corresponding with the angle of the mandible. It is at first deeply seated beneath the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein, and intimately connected with the vagus nerve; it then passes forward between the vein and artery, and lower down in the neck becomes superficial below the Digastricus. The nerve then loops around the occipital artery, and crosses the external carotid and lingual arteries below the tendon of the Digastricus. It passes beneath the tendon of the Digastricus, the Stylohyoideus, and the Mylohyoideus, lying between the last-named muscle and the Hyoglossus, and communicates at the anterior border of the Hyoglossus with the lingual nerve; it is then continued forward in the fibers of the Genioglossus as far as the tip of the tongue, distributing branches to its muscular substance.


FIG. 795– Plan of hypoglossal nerve. (See enlarged image)


Branches of Communication.—Its branches of communication are, with the
Vagus.
First and second cervical nerves.
Sympathetic.
Lingual.
  The communications with the vagus take place close to the skull, numerous filaments passing between the hypoglossal and the ganglion nodosum of the vagus

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