Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD · COUNTRY INDEX · FLAG INDEX · MAP INDEX
  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Armenia
 
Flag of Armenia                                Map of Armenia
 
Background:Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in an estimated 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. Turkey imposed an economic blockade on Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian separatists' control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Geographic coordinates:40 00 N, 45 00 E
Map references:Asia
Area:total: 29,800 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Terrain:Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Natural resources:small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
Land use:arable land: 16.78%
permanent crops: 2.01%
other: 81.21% (2005)
Irrigated land:2,860 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:10.5 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 2.95 cu km/yr (30%/4%/66%)
per capita: 977 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Environment—current issues:soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography—note:landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
  
People
  
Population:2,971,650 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 19.5% (male 307,610/female 271,381)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 962,126/female 1,098,192)
65 years and over: 11.2% (male 132,705/female 199,636) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 30.8 years
male: 28.1 years
female: 33.6 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:-0.129% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:12.34 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8.29 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-5.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.16 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.133 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.876 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.665 male(s)/female
total population: 0.894 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 21.69 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.69 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.12 years
male: 68.52 years
female: 76.29 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.34 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:2,600 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian
Ethnic groups:Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001 census)
Religions:Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship) 1.3%
Languages:Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2001 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Yerevan
geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Independence:21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Constitution:adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995; amendments adopted through a nationwide referendum 27 November 2005
Legal system:based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Serzh SARGSYAN (since 4 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 February 2008 (next to be held February 2013); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority or plurality support in parliament; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program
election results: Serzh SARGSYAN elected president; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSYAN 52.9%, Levon TER-PETROSSIAN 21.5%, Artur BAGHDASARIAN 16.7%; note - president elect Serzh SARGSYAN is due to take office 9 April 2008
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote, 90 members elected by party list and 41 by direct vote; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 May 2007 (next to be held in the spring of 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - HHK 49.6%, Prosperous Armenia 19%, ARF (Dashnak) 12.2%, Rule of Law 6.1%, Heritage Party 5.3%, other 7.8%; seats by party - HHK 65, Prosperous Armenia 25, ARF (Dashnak) 16, Rule of Law 8, Heritage Party 7, Dashink 1, independent 9
Judicial branch:Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Political parties and leaders:Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABYAN]; Armenian People's Party [Tigran KARAPETYAN]; Armenian Ramkavar Azadagan Party Alliance or HRAK (includes former Dashink Party, National Revival Party, and Ramkavar Liberal Party); Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISYAN]; National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSAROUKYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Republican Party of Armenia or HHK [Serzh SARGSYAN]; Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARYAN]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN], Aylentrank (Impeachment) [Nikol PASHINYAN]
International organization participation:ACCT (observer), ADB, BSEC, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Tatoul MARKARIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph S. PENNINGTON
embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082
mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
telephone: [374](10) 464-700
FAX: [374](10) 464-742
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia has made progress in implementing many economic reforms including privatization, price reforms, and prudent fiscal policies. The conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in positive growth rates. Economic growth has averaged over 13% in recent years. Armenia has managed to reduce poverty, slash inflation, stabilize its currency, and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. Nuclear power plants built at Metsamor in the 1970s were closed following the 1988 Spitak Earthquake, though they sustained no damage. One of the two reactors was re-opened in 1995, but the Armenian government is under international pressure to close it due to concerns that the Soviet era design lacks important safeguards. Metsamor provides 40 percent of the country's electricity - hydropower accounts for about one-fourth. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002 and bought by Russia's RAO-UES in 2005. Construction of a pipeline to deliver natural gas from Iran to Armenia is halfway completed and is scheduled to be commissioned by January 2009. Armenia has some mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite). Pig iron, unwrought copper, and other nonferrous metals are Armenia's highest valued exports. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, remittances from Armenians working abroad, and foreign direct investment. Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. The government made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures will be more difficult to implement. Despite strong economic growth, Armenia's unemployment rate remains high. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms in order to improve its economic competitiveness and to build on recent improvements in poverty and unemployment, especially given its economic isolation from two of its nearest neighbors, Turkey and Azerbaijan.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$16.83 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$9.27 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:13.7% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$5,700 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 17.2%
industry: 36.4%
services: 46.4% (2007 est.)
Labor force:1.2 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 46.2%
industry: 15.6%
services: 38.2% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:7.1% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:26.5% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 41.3% (2004)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:37 (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):6.6% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):30.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $1.648 billion
expenditures: $1.645 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
Industries:diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Industrial production growth rate:2.6% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:5.941 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—consumption:5.454 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—exports:754.5 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2006)
Electricity—imports:354.9 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2006)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—consumption:40,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:41,240 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:2.2 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas—imports:2.2 billion cu m (2007)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006)
Current account balance:$-440 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$1.157 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
Exports—partners:Germany 18.3%, Netherlands 14.1%, Belgium 13.3%, Russia 13.1%, Israel 7%, US 6.1%, Georgia 5.1%, Iran 4.9% (2006)
Imports:$3.281 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
Imports—partners:Russia 21.8%, Ukraine 7.8%, Belgium 7.6%, Turkmenistan 7.1%, Italy 6.1%, Germany 5.7%, Iran 5.7%, Israel 4.8%, US 4.5%, Georgia 4.1% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.646 billion (December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$1.372 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$42.8 million (2005)
Economic aid—recipient:ODA, $180 million (2007)
Currency (code):dram (AMD)
Exchange rates:drams per US dollar - 344.06 (2007), 414.69 (2006), 457.69 (2005), 533.45 (2004), 578.76 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:594,400 (2005)
Telephones—mobile cellular:318,000 (2005)
Telephone system:general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004 and a second provider began operations in mid-2005
domestic: reliable modern landline and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan in major cities and towns; significant, but ever-shrinking gaps remain in mobile-cellular coverage in rural areas
international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:48 (private television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Russian channels widely available) (2006)
Internet country code:.am
Internet hosts:8,270 (2007)
Internet users:172,800 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:12 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 2,036 km (2007)
Railways:total: 839 km
broad gauge: 839 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)
note: some lines are out of service (2006)
Roadways:total: 7,700 km
paved: 7,700 km (includes 1,561 km of expressways) (2006)
  
Military
  
Military branches:Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Nagorno-Karabakh Self Defense Force (NKSDF), Air Force, Air Defense Force (2006)
Military service age and obligation:18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 722,836
females age 18-49: 795,084 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 551,938
females age 18-49: 656,493 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 31,774
females age 18-49: 31,182 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:6.5% (FY01)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; Armenians continue to emigrate, primarily to Russia, seeking employment
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 219,324 (Azerbaijan)
IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, majority have returned home since 1994 ceasefire) (2006)
Trafficking in persons:current situation: Armenia is a major source and, to a lesser extent, a transit and destination country for women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation largely to the UAE and Turkey; traffickers, many of them women, route victims directly into Dubai or through Moscow; profits derived from the trafficking of Armenian victims reportedly have increased
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Armenia has failed to show evidence of increasing efforts, particularly in the areas of enforcement, trafficking-related corruption, and victim protection
Illicit drugs:illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe

CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD · COUNTRY INDEX · FLAG INDEX · MAP INDEX
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
 
Loading
Click here to shop the Bartleby Bookstore.

Shakespeare · Bible · Strunk · Anatomy · Nonfiction · Quotations · Reference · Fiction · Poetry
© 1993–2014 Bartleby.com · [Top 150] · Subjects · Titles · Authors