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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Belize
 
Flag of Belize                                Map of Belize
 
Background:Belize was the site of several Mayan city states until their decline at the end of the first millennium A.D. The British and Spanish disputed the region in the 17th and 18th centuries; it formally became the colony of British Honduras in 1854. Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. Current concerns include an unsustainable foreign debt, high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug trade, growing urban crime, and increasing incidences of HIV/AIDS.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico
Geographic coordinates:17 15 N, 88 45 W
Map references:Central America and the Caribbean
Area:total: 22,966 sq km
land: 22,806 sq km
water: 160 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:total: 516 km
border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Coastline:386 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for negotiating a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
Terrain:flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m
Natural resources:arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 3.05%
permanent crops: 1.39%
other: 95.56% (2005)
Irrigated land:30 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:18.6 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.15 cu km/yr (7%/73%/20%)
per capita: 556 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
Environment—current issues:deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean
  
People
  
Population:294,385 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 38.9% (male 58,459/female 56,183)
15-64 years: 57.5% (male 85,686/female 83,717)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 4,979/female 5,361) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 19.9 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:2.258% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:28.34 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:5.76 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.929 male(s)/female
total population: 1.027 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 24.38 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.43 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 68.25 years
male: 66.44 years
female: 70.16 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.52 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:2.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:3,600 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 200 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Belizean(s)
adjective: Belizean
Ethnic groups:mestizo 48.7%, Creole 24.9%, Maya 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 9.7%
Religions:Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Pentecostal 7.4%, Anglican 5.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Mennonite 4.1%, Methodist 3.5%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), other 14%, none 9.4% (2000)
Languages:Spanish 46%, Creole 32.9%, Mayan dialects 8.9%, English 3.9% (official), Garifuna 3.4% (Carib), German 3.3%, other 1.4%, unknown 0.2% (2000 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.9%
male: 76.7%
female: 77.1% (2000 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Belize
former: British Honduras
Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Belmopan
geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 46 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence:21 September 1981 (from UK)
National holiday:Independence Day, 21 September (1981)
Constitution:21 September 1981
Legal system:English law
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 November 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since 8 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Gaspar VEGA (since 12 February 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Legislative branch:bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (12 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 6 on the advice of the prime minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 1 each on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and Evangelical Association of Churches, the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Better Business Bureau, and the National Trade Union Congress and the Civil Society Steering Committee; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (31 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 6 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UDP 25, PUP 6
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)
Political parties and leaders:National Alliance for Belizean Rights or NABR; National Reform Party or NRP [Cornelius DUECK]; People's National Party or PNP [Wil MAHEIA]; People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW]; Vision Inspired by the People or VIP [Paul MORGAN]; We the People Reform Movement or WTP [Hipolito BAUTISTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Gustavo PERERA]; Association of Concerned Belizeans or ACB [David VASQUEZ]; National Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUC/B [Rene GOMEZ]
International organization participation:ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Robert J. DIETER
embassy: Floral Park Road, Belmopan City, Cayo District
mailing address: P.O. Box 497, Belmopan City, Cayo District, Belize
telephone: [501] 822-4011
FAX: [501] 822-4012
Flag description:blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:In this small, essentially private-enterprise economy, tourism is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by exports of marine products, citrus, cane sugar, bananas, and garments. The government's expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, initiated in September 1998, led to sturdy GDP growth averaging nearly 4% in 1999-2007. Oil discoveries in 2006 bolstered the economic growth in 2006 and 2007. Major concerns continue to be the sizable trade deficit and unsustainable foreign debt. In February 2007, the government restructured nearly all of its public external commercial debt, which will reduce interest payments and create the liquidity relief needed for an increase in public spending in the run-up to the March 2008 elections. A key short-term objective remains the reduction of poverty with the help of international donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$2.336 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$1.304 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$7,800 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 21.3%
industry: 13.7%
services: 65% (2007 est.)
Labor force:113,000
note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (2006 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 22.5%
industry: 15.2%
services: 62.3% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:9.4% (2006)
Population below poverty line:33.5% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.8% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):22.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $328.5 million
expenditures: $365 million (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:bananas, cacao, citrus, sugar; fish, cultured shrimp; lumber; garments
Industries:garment production, food processing, tourism, construction, oil
Industrial production growth rate:0.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:200 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity—consumption:162.8 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:2,413 bbl/day (2006)
Oil—consumption:3,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—exports:1,960 bbl/day (2006)
Oil—imports:6,754 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-54 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$437 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood
Exports—partners:US 33.9%, UK 33.6%, Cote d'Ivoire 3.7% (2006)
Imports:$670 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco
Imports—partners:US 35.7%, Mexico 13%, Cuba 7.7%, Guatemala 7.2%, China 4.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$92 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$1.2 billion (June 2005 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$12.91 million (2005)
Currency (code):Belizean dollar (BZD)
Exchange rates:Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2 (2007), 2 (2006), 2 (2005), 2 (2004), 2 (2003)
Fiscal year:1 April - 31 March
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:33,900 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:118,300 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: above-average system; fixed-line teledensity of 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of about 40 per 100 persons
domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
international: country code - 501; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 16, shortwave 0 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:5 (2006)
Internet country code:.bz
Internet hosts:1,942 (2007)
Internet users:34,000 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:44 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 40
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 27 (2007)
Roadways:total: 2,872 km
paved: 488 km
unpaved: 2,384 km (1999)
Waterways:825 km (navigable only by small craft) (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 261 ships (1000 GRT or over) 940,852 GRT/1,275,111 DWT
by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 36, cargo 190, chemical tanker 5, container 5, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 6, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 217 (China 107, Croatia 1, Cyprus 1, Estonia 1, Hong Kong 5, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Japan 2, South Korea 4, Latvia 14, Norway 3, Peru 1, Philippines 1, Russia 39, Singapore 3, Spain 2, Turkey 11, Ukraine 10, UAE 4, US 3) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Belize City, Big Creek
  
Military
  
Military branches:Belize Defense Force (BDF): Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available positions by 3:1 (2008)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 61,201
females age 18-49: 60,048 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 44,238
females age 18-49: 43,633 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 3,213
females age 18-49: 3,100 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.4% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:annual ministerial meetings under the OAS-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and Caribbean Sea; the Line of Adjacency created under the 2002 Differendum serves in lieu of the contiguous international boundary to control squatting in the sparsely inhabited rain forests of Belize's border region; Honduras claims Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays in its constitution but agreed to a joint ecological park under the Differendum
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis, primarily for local consumption; money-laundering activity related to narcotics trafficking and offshore sector

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