Reference > World Factbook, 2008
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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Cambodia
 
Flag of Cambodia                                Map of Cambodia
 
Background:Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863 and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the remaining Khmer Rouge leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored tribunal for crimes against humanity. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King SIHANOUK abdicated the throne due to illness and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held in Cambodia in April 2007, and there was little in the way of pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections are scheduled for July 2008.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates:13 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:Southeast Asia
Area:total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:total: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline:443 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Natural resources:oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Land use:arable land: 20.44%
permanent crops: 0.59%
other: 78.97% (2005)
Irrigated land:2,700 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:476.1 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 4.08 cu km/yr (1%/0%/98%)
per capita: 290 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Environment—current issues:illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography—note:a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
  
People
  
Population:13,995,904
note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 34% (male 2,405,561/female 2,355,404)
15-64 years: 62.4% (male 4,234,701/female 4,500,994)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 189,090/female 310,154) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 21.3 years
male: 20.6 years
female: 22.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.729% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:25.53 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8.24 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.021 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.941 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.953 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 58.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 61.29 years
male: 59.27 years
female: 63.4 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.12 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:2.6% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:170,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:15,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian
Ethnic groups:Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Religions:Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Languages:Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.6%
male: 84.7%
female: 64.1% (2004 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)
local short form: Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
Government type:multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Capital:name: Phnom Penh
geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural)
provinces: Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Krachen, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnum Penh (Phnom Penh), Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville)
Independence:9 November 1953 (from France)
National holiday:Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Constitution:promulgated 21 September 1993
Legal system:primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985) [co-prime minister from 1993 to 1997]; Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992); SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004); KEV PUT REAKSMEI (since 24 October 2006), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers in theory appointed by the monarch; in practice named by the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
Legislative branch:bicameral, consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be held in July 2008); Senate - last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73, FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 69%, FUNCINPEC 21%, SRP 10%; seats by party - CPP 45, FUNCINPEC 10, SRP 2 (January 2006)
Judicial branch:Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Political parties and leaders:Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [Norodom RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACCT, ADB, APT, ARF, ASEAN, EAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador EK SEREYWATH
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. MUSSOMELI
embassy: #1, Street 96, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
Flag description:three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band
note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building in its design
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:From 2001 to 2004, the economy grew at an average rate of 6.4%, driven largely by an expansion in the garment sector and tourism. The US and Cambodia signed a Bilateral Textile Agreement, which gave Cambodia a guaranteed quota of US textile imports and established a bonus for improving working conditions and enforcing Cambodian labor laws and international labor standards in the industry. With the January 2005 expiration of a WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, Cambodia-based textile producers were forced to compete directly with lower-priced producing countries such as China and India. Better-than-expected garment sector performance led to more than 8% growth in 2007. Its vibrant garment industry employs more than 350,000 people and contributes more than 70% of Cambodia's exports. The Cambodian government has committed itself to a policy supporting high labor standards in an attempt to maintain buyer interest. In 2005, exploitable oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, representing a new revenue stream for the government if commercial extraction begins. Mining also is attracting significant investor interest, particularly in the northeastern parts of the country, and the government has said opportunities exist for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems. In 2006, a US-Cambodia bilateral Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed and the first round of discussions took place in early 2007. The tourism industry continues to grow rapidly, with foreign arrivals reaching 2 million in 2007. In 2007 the government signed a joint venture agreement with two companies to form a new national airline. The long-term development of the economy remains a daunting challenge. The Cambodian government is working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is less than 21 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$25.79 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$8.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:9.1% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$1,800 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 31%
industry: 26%
services: 43% (2007 est.)
Labor force:7 million (2003 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 75%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:2.5% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:35% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 34.8% (2004)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:41.7 (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):4.4% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):20.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $915.5 million
expenditures: $1.101 billion (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca
Industries:tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:12% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:134 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:206.6 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:82 million kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—consumption:3,700 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:3,585 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-410 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$4.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Exports—partners:US 53.3%, Hong Kong 15.2%, Germany 6.6%, UK 4.3% (2006)
Imports:$5.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Imports—partners:Hong Kong 18.1%, China 17.5%, Thailand 13.9%, Taiwan 12.7%, Vietnam 9%, Singapore 5.3%, South Korea 4.9%, Japan 4.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.662 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$3.98 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$698.2 million pledged in grants and concession loans for 2007 by international donors (2007)
Currency (code):riel (KHR)
Exchange rates:riels per US dollar - 4,006 (2007), 4,103 (2006), 4,092.5 (2005), 4,016.25 (2004), 3,973.33 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:32,800 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1.14 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: mobile-phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by increasing competition among service providers, is increasing and stands at about 8 per 100 persons
domestic: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 2, FM 17, shortwave NA (2003)
Television broadcast stations:9 (including 2 TV relay stations with French and Vietnamese broadcasts); excludes 18 regional relay stations (2006)
Internet country code:.kh
Internet hosts:941 (2007)
Internet users:44,000 (2005)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:17 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Heliports:1 (2007)
Railways:total: 602 km
narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 38,257 km
paved: 2,406 km
unpaved: 35,851 km (2004)
Waterways:2,400 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2005)
Merchant marine:total: 586 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,889,909 GRT/2,682,881 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 487, chemical tanker 10, container 9, livestock carrier 3, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 463 (Canada 6, China 166, Cyprus 9, Egypt 14, Estonia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 5, Hong Kong 11, Indonesia 1, Japan 3, South Korea 29, Latvia 2, Lebanon 7, Nigeria 2, Romania 1, Russia 112, Singapore 2, Syria 32, Taiwan 1, Turkey 20, Ukraine 27, UAE 2, US 6, Yemen 3) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Phnom Penh, Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville)
  
Military
  
Military branches:Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force (2008)
Military service age and obligation:conscription law of October 2006 requires all males between 18-30 to register for military service; 18-month service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 3,002,718
females age 18-49: 3,108,254 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,955,141
females age 18-49: 2,048,611 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 175,497
females age 18-49: 172,788 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:3% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Southeast Asian states must maintain border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary with missing boundary markers and claims of Thai encroachments into Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Vietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; Cambodia accuses Thailand of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962
Trafficking in persons:current situation: Cambodia is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor; a significant number of women and children are trafficked to Thailand and Malaysia for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor; men are trafficked primarily to Thailand for forced labor in the construction and agricultural sectors, particularly the fishing industry, while women and girls are trafficked for factory and domestic work; children are trafficked to Vietnam and Thailand for the purpose of forced begging; Cambodia is a transit and destination point for women from Vietnam trafficked for sexual exploitation; trafficking for sexual exploitation also occurs within Cambodia's borders, from rural areas to the cities
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cambodia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is committed to making significant efforts to sustain progress over the coming year
Illicit drugs:narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders

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