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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Chile
 
Flag of Chile                                Map of Chile
 
Background:Prior to the coming of the Spanish in the 16th century, northern Chile was under Inca rule while Araucanian Indians (also known as Mapuches) inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Araucanian Indians were completely subjugated. A three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru
Geographic coordinates:30 00 S, 71 00 W
Map references:South America
Area:total: 756,950 sq km
land: 748,800 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
Land boundaries:total: 6,339 km
border countries: Argentina 5,308 km, Bolivia 860 km, Peru 171 km
Coastline:6,435 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200/350 nm
Climate:temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
Terrain:low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m
Natural resources:copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 2.62%
permanent crops: 0.43%
other: 96.95% (2005)
Irrigated land:19,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:922 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 12.55 cu km/yr (11%/25%/64%)
per capita: 770 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
Environment—current issues:widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
Environment—international agreements:party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions
  
People
  
Population:16,284,741 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 24.1% (male 2,010,576/female 1,920,951)
15-64 years: 67.4% (male 5,480,703/female 5,492,988)
65 years and over: 8.5% (male 576,698/female 802,825) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 30.7 years
male: 29.8 years
female: 31.7 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.916% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:15.03 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:5.87 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.047 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.998 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.718 male(s)/female
total population: 0.982 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 8.36 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.09 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.96 years
male: 73.69 years
female: 80.4 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.97 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:26,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:1,400 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean
Ethnic groups:white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%
Religions:Roman Catholic 70%, Evangelical 15.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, other Christian 1%, other 4.6%, none 8.3% (2002 census)
Languages:Spanish
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 95.8%
female: 95.6% (2002 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Santiago
geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in October; ends second Sunday in March
Administrative divisions:15 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:18 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday:Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Constitution:11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 1989, 1991, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, and 2005
Legal system:based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; note - in June 2005, Chile completed overhaul of its criminal justice system to a new, US-style adversarial system
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:chief of state: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 11 December 2005, with runoff election held 15 January 2006 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent of vote - Michelle BACHELET Jeria 53.5%; Sebastian PINERA Echenique 46.5%
Legislative branch:bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (38 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve eight-year terms; one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 11 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2009); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPD 20 (PDC 6, PS 8, PPD 3, PRSD 3), APC 17 (UDI 9, RN 8), independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPD 65 (PDC 21, PPD 22, PS 15, PRSD 7), APC 54 (UDI 34, RN 20), independent 1; note - as of 8 January 2008: Senate - seats by party - CPD 18, (PDC 5, PS 8, PPD 2, PRSD 3), APC 16 (UDI 9, RN 7), independent 4; Chamber of Deputies - seats by party - CPD 57 (PDC 16, PPD 19, PS 15, PRSD 7), APC 53 (UDI 33, RN 20), independent 10.
Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected every three years by the 20-member court); Constitutional Tribunal
Political parties and leaders:Alliance for Chile ("Alianza") or APC (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena] and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Hernan LARRAIN Fernandez]); Coalition of Parties for Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Soledad ALVEAR], Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA Medina], Party for Democracy or PPD [Sergio BITAR Chacra], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia]); Communist Party or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER]; Humanist Party [Marilen CABRERA Olmos]
Political pressure groups and leaders:revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
International organization participation:ABEDA, APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CSN, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Mariano FERNANDEZ
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 530-4104, 530-4106, 530-4107
FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Paul E. SIMONS
embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago
mailing address: APO AA 34033
telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence
note: design was influenced by the US flag
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's reputation as a role model for economic reform was strengthened when the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from the military in 1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the military government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell to half that level in 1998 because of tight monetary policies implemented to keep the current account deficit in check and because of lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in 1999, reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and electricity rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic growth for the first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects of the recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Between 2000 and 2007 growth ranged between 2%-6%. Throughout these years Chile maintained a low rate of inflation with GDP growth coming from high copper prices, solid export earnings (particularly forestry, fishing, and mining), and growing domestic consumption. President BACHELET in 2006 established an Economic and Social Stabilization Fund to hold excess copper revenues so that social spending can be maintained during periods of copper shortfalls. This fund will surpass $20 billion by the end of 2007. Chile continues to attract foreign direct investment, but most foreign investment goes into gas, water, electricity and mining. Unemployment has exhibited a downward trend over the past two years, dropping to 7.8% and 6.7% at the end of 2006 and 2007, respectively. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile claims to have more bilateral or regional trade agreements than any other country. It has 57 such agreements (not all of them full free trade agreements), including with the European Union, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$234.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$160.8 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5.2% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$14,400 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 4.9%
industry: 49.7%
services: 45.4% (2007 est.)
Labor force:6.97 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 13.6%
industry: 23.4%
services: 63% (2003)
Unemployment rate:7% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:18.2% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 45% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:54.9 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):6.5% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):21% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $44.44 billion
expenditures: $31.36 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:3.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
Industries:copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:5.6% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:47.6 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—consumption:48.31 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:2.152 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:15,100 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—consumption:238,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—exports:31,510 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:222,900 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—proved reserves:150 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:1.957 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:8.191 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:6.234 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:93.97 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$8.184 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$66.43 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
Exports—partners:US 15.6%, Japan 10.5%, China 8.6%, Netherlands 6.7%, South Korea 5.9%, Italy 4.9%, Brazil 4.8%, France 4.2% (2006)
Imports:$41.8 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas
Imports—partners:US 15.6%, Argentina 12.6%, Brazil 11.8%, China 9.7% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$22.24 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$49.18 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$84.07 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$28.5 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$174.6 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$0 (2006)
Currency (code):Chilean peso (CLP)
Exchange rates:Chilean pesos per US dollar - 526.25 (2007), 530.29 (2006), 560.09 (2005), 609.37 (2004), 691.43 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:3.326 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:12.451 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: privatization began in 1988; advanced telecommunications infrastructure; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; fixed-line connections have dropped in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching a level of 75 telephones per 100 persons
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations
international: country code - 56; submarine cables provide links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 180 (8 inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17 (1 inactive) (1998)
Television broadcast stations:63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:.cl
Internet hosts:745,375 (2007)
Internet users:4.156 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:358 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 79
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 279
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 49
under 914 m: 216 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 2,550 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 42 km; liquid petroleum gas 539 km; oil 1,002 km; refined products 757 km; unknown (oil/water) 97 km (2007)
Railways:total: 6,585 km
broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1,317 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 79,605 km
paved: 16,080 km (includes 407 km of expressways)
unpaved: 63,525 km (2001)
Merchant marine:total: 48 ships (1000 GRT or over) 719,668 GRT/1,016,892 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 6, chemical tanker 11, container 1, liquefied gas 2, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 3
foreign-owned: 1 (Argentina 1)
registered in other countries: 20 (Argentina 7, Brazil 1, Marshall Islands 4, Panama 8) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso
  
Military
  
Military branches:Army of the Nation, Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes naval air, marine corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh), Carabineros Corps (Cuerpo de Carabineros) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18-45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service, although the right to compulsory recruitment is retained; service obligation - 12 months for Army, 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2008)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 3,815,761
females age 18-49: 3,780,864 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 3,123,281
females age 18-49: 3,128,277 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 140,084
females age 18-49: 134,518 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:2.7% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Chile rebuffs Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian gas and other commodities; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
Illicit drugs:important transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe; economic prosperity and increasing trade have made Chile more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone, but a new anti-money-laundering law improves controls; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising; significant consumer of cocaine

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