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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Ireland
 
Flag of Ireland                                Map of Ireland
 
Background:Celtic tribes arrived on the island between 600-150 B.C. Invasions by Norsemen that began in the late 8th century were finally ended when King Brian BORU defeated the Danes in 1014. English invasions began in the 12th century and set off more than seven centuries of Anglo-Irish struggle marked by fierce rebellions and harsh repressions. A failed 1916 Easter Monday Rebellion touched off several years of guerrilla warfare that in 1921 resulted in independence from the UK for 26 southern counties; six northern (Ulster) counties remained part of the UK. In 1948 Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth; it joined the European Community in 1973. Irish governments have sought the peaceful unification of Ireland and have cooperated with Britain against terrorist groups. A peace settlement for Northern Ireland is being implemented with some difficulties. In 2006, the Irish and British governments developed and began to implement the St. Andrews Agreement, building on the Good Friday Agreement approved in 1998.
  
Geography
  
Location:Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain
Geographic coordinates:53 00 N, 8 00 W
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 70,280 sq km
land: 68,890 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:total: 360 km
border countries: UK 360 km
Coastline:1,448 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Carrauntoohil 1,041 m
Natural resources:natural gas, peat, copper, lead, zinc, silver, barite, gypsum, limestone, dolomite
Land use:arable land: 16.82%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 83.15% (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Total renewable water resources:46.8 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 1.18 cu km/yr (23%/77%/0%)
per capita: 284 cu m/yr (1994)
Natural hazards:NA
Environment—current issues:water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Marine Life Conservation
Geography—note:strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 100 km of Dublin
  
People
  
Population:4,109,086 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 20.8% (male 442,664/female 413,556)
15-64 years: 67.5% (male 1,387,803/female 1,385,355)
65 years and over: 11.7% (male 212,782/female 266,926) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 34.3 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 35.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.143% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:14.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:7.79 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:4.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.002 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.797 male(s)/female
total population: 0.989 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 5.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.9 years
male: 75.27 years
female: 80.7 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.86 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:2,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective plural)
adjective: Irish
Ethnic groups:Celtic, English
Religions:Roman Catholic 88.4%, Church of Ireland 3%, other Christian 1.6%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2%, none 3.5% (2002 census)
Languages:English (official) is the language generally used, Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) (official) spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ireland
local long form: none
local short form: Eire
Government type:republic, parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Dublin
geographic coordinates: 53 19 N, 6 14 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow
note: Cavan, Donegal, and Monaghan are part of Ulster Province
Independence:6 December 1921 (from UK by treaty)
National holiday:Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March
Constitution:adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite; effective 29 December 1937
Legal system:based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Mary MCALEESE (since 11 November 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Bertie AHERN (since 26 June 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 31 October 1997 (next scheduled for October 2011); note - Mary MCALEESE appointed to a second term when no other candidate qualified for the 2004 presidential election; prime minister (taoiseach) nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president
election results: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of vote - Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%
note: government coalition - Fianna Fail, the Green Party, the Progressive Democrats, and independent members of Parliament
Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats; 49 members elected by the universities and from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are nominated by the prime minister; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held NA July 2007 (next to be held by July 2012); House of Representatives - last held 24 May 2007 (next to be held by May 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Fianna Fail 28, Fine Gael 14, Labor Party 6, Progressive Democrats 2, Green Party 2, Sein Fein 1, independents 7; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Fianna Fail 41.6%, Fine Gael 27.3%, Labor Party 10.1%, Sinn Fein 6.9%, Green Party 4.7%, Progressive Democrats 2.7%, other 6.7%; seats by party - Fianna Fail 78, Fine Gael 51, Labor Party 20, Sinn Fein 4, Green Party 6, Progressive Democrats 2, other 5
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)
Political parties and leaders:Fianna Fail [Bertie AHERN]; Fine Gael [Enda KENNY]; Green Party [John GORMLEY]; Labor Party [Eamon GILMORE]; Progressive Democrats [Mary HARNEY, acting leader]; Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; Socialist Party [Joe HIGGINS]; The Workers' Party [Sean GARLAND]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ADB (nonregional members), Australia Group, BIS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Michael COLLINS
chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3939
FAX: [1] (202) 232-5993
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas C. FOLEY
embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [353] (1) 668-8777
FAX: [353] (1) 668-9946
Flag description:three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Ireland is a small, modern, trade-dependent economy with growth averaging 6% in 1995-2007. Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry and services. Although the exports sector, dominated by foreign multinationals, remains a key component of Ireland's economy, construction has most recently fueled economic growth along with strong consumer spending and business investment. Property prices have risen more rapidly in Ireland in the decade up to 2006 than in any other developed world economy. Per capita GDP is 40% above that of the four big European economies and the second highest in the EU behind Luxembourg, and in 2007 surpassed that of the United States. The Irish Government has implemented a series of national economic programs designed to curb price and wage inflation, invest in infrastructure, increase labor force skills, and promote foreign investment. A slowdown in the property market, more intense global competition, and increased costs, however, have compelled government economists to lower Ireland's growth forecast slightly for 2008. Ireland joined in circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU nations.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$187.5 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$253.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$45,600 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 5%
industry: 46%
services: 49% (2002 est.)
Labor force:2.21 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 6%
industry: 27%
services: 67% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:5% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:7% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 27.2% (2000)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:32 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):4.7% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):25.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $93.85 billion
expenditures: $91.07 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:21.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; beef, dairy products
Industries:steel, lead, zinc, silver, aluminum, barite, and gypsum mining processing; food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals, pharmaceuticals; machinery, rail transportation equipment, passenger and commercial vehicles, ship construction and refurbishment; glass and crystal; software, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:5% (2006 est.)
Electricity—production:24.13 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:24.09 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:1 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:2.045 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:192,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:23,360 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:204,400 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:546.7 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:3.895 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:3.348 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:9.505 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-12.6 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$124.8 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:machinery and equipment, computers, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; live animals, animal products
Exports—partners:US 18.7%, UK 17.9%, Belgium 14.4%, Germany 7.8%, France 5.8%, Italy 4.2% (2006)
Imports:$90.35 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:data processing equipment, other machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, clothing
Imports—partners:UK 37.5%, US 11.5%, Germany 9.6%, Netherlands 4.6% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$831.9 million (2006 est.)
Debt—external:$1.841 trillion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$179 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$125.2 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$114.1 billion (2005)
Economic aid—donor:ODA, $719 million (2005)
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:2.097 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:4.69 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay
domestic: microwave radio relay
international: country code - 353; landing point for the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable with links to the US, Canada, and UK; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 9, FM 106, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:4 (many repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:.ie
Internet hosts:429,487 (2007)
Internet users:1.437 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:34 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 15
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 16 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 1,855 km (2007)
Railways:total: 3,237 km
broad gauge: 1,872 km 1.600-m gauge (37 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,365 km 0.914-m gauge (operated by the Irish Peat Board to transport peat to power stations and briquetting plants) (2006)
Roadways:total: 96,602 km
paved: 96,602 km (includes 200 km of expressways) (2003)
Waterways:956 km (pleasure craft only) (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 27 ships (1000 GRT or over) 116,091 GRT/161,808 DWT
by type: cargo 23, chemical tanker 2, container 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 3 (Spain 1, US 2)
registered in other countries: 18 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 1, Bulgaria 1, Cyprus 1, Germany 1, Isle of Man 1, Netherlands 9, Panama 1, UK 1, unknown 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Cork, Dublin, Shannon Foynes
  
Military
  
Military branches:Irish Defense Forces (Oglaigh na h-Eireann): Army (includes Naval Service and Air Corps) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:17 years of age for voluntary military service; enlistees under the age of 17 can be recruited for specialist positions (2001)
Manpower available for military service:males age 17-49: 977,092
females age 17-49: 978,465 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 17-49: 814,768
females age 17-49: 813,981 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 29,327
females age 17-49: 28,139 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.9% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Ireland, Iceland, and the UK dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced synthetic drugs; increasing consumption of South American cocaine; minor transshipment point for heroin and cocaine destined for Western Europe; despite recent legislation, narcotics-related money laundering - using bureaux de change, trusts, and shell companies involving the offshore financial community - remains a concern

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