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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Legal system
 
 
CountryLegal system
Afghanistanbased on mixed civil and Shari'a law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Akrotirithe Sovereign Base Area Administration has its own court system to deal with civil and criminal matters; laws applicable to the Cypriot population are, as far as possible, the same as the laws of the Republic of Cyprus
Albaniahas a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court for its citizens
Algeriasocialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
American SamoaNA
Andorrabased on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Angolabased on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Anguillabased on English common law
AntarcticaAntarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extraterritorially; some US laws directly apply to Antarctica; for example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica; violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison; the National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty; for more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov; more generally, access to the Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90 degrees south latitude, is subject to a number of relevant legal instruments and authorization procedures adopted by the states party to the Antarctic Treaty
Antigua and Barbudabased on English common law
Argentinamixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Armeniabased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Arubabased on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
Ashmore and Cartier Islandsthe laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply
Australiabased on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Austriacivil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Azerbaijanbased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bahamas, Thebased on English common law
Bahrainbased on Islamic law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bangladeshbased on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
BarbadosEnglish common law; no judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Belarusbased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Belgiumbased on civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
BelizeEnglish law
Beninbased on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
BermudaEnglish law
Bhutanbased on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Boliviabased on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bosnia and Herzegovinabased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Botswanabased on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Bouvet Islandthe laws of Norway, where applicable, apply
Brazilbased on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
British Indian Ocean Territorythe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
British Virgin IslandsEnglish law
Bruneibased on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Bulgariacivil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Burkina Fasobased on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Burmabased on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Burundibased on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Cambodiaprimarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Cameroonbased on French civil law system, with common law influence; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Canadabased on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Cape Verdebased on the legal system of Portugal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Cayman IslandsBritish common law and local statutes
Central African Republicbased on French law
Chadbased on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Chilebased on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; note - in June 2005, Chile completed overhaul of its criminal justice system to a new, US-style adversarial system
Chinabased on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Christmas Islandunder the authority of the governor general of Australia and Australian law
Clipperton Islandthe laws of France, where applicable, apply
Cocos (Keeling) Islandsbased upon the laws of Australia and local laws
Colombiabased on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted into law in 2004 and is gradually being implemented; judicial review of executive and legislative acts
ComorosFrench and Islamic law in a new consolidated code
Congo, Democratic Republic of thea new constitution was adopted by referendum 18 December 2005; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Congo, Republic of thebased on French civil law system and customary law
Cook Islandsbased on New Zealand law and English common law
Coral Sea Islandsthe laws of Australia, where applicable, apply
Costa Ricabased on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Cote d'Ivoirebased on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Croatiabased on Austro-Hungarian law system with Communist law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Cubabased on Spanish civil law and influenced by American legal concepts, with large elements of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Cyprusbased on English common law, with civil law modifications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Czech Republiccivil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Denmarkcivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Dhekeliathe Sovereign Base Area Administration has its own court system to deal with civil and criminal matters; laws applicable to the Cypriot population are, as far as possible, the same as the laws of the Republic of Cyprus
Djiboutibased on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Dominicabased on English common law
Dominican Republicbased on French civil codes; Criminal Procedures Code modified in 2004 to include important elements of an accusatory system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Ecuadorbased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Egyptbased on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
El Salvadorbased on civil and Roman law with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Equatorial Guineapartly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
Eritreaprimary basis is the Ethiopian legal code of 1957, with revisions; new civil, commercial, and penal codes have not yet been promulgated; government also issues unilateral proclamations setting laws and policies; also relies on customary and post-independence-enacted laws and, for civil cases involving Muslims, Islamic law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Estoniabased on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Ethiopiabased on civil law; currently transitional mix of national and regional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
European Unioncomparable to the legal systems of member states; first supranational law system
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)English common law
Faroe Islandsthe laws of Denmark, where applicable, apply
Fijibased on British system
Finlandcivil law system based on Swedish law; the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Francecivil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
French Polynesiathe laws of France, where applicable, apply
French Southern and Antarctic Landsthe laws of France, where applicable, apply
Gabonbased on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Gambia, Thebased on a composite of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Georgiabased on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Germanycivil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Ghanabased on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Gibraltarthe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
Greecebased on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Greenlandthe laws of Denmark, where applicable, apply
Grenadabased on English common law
Guammodeled on US; US federal laws apply
Guatemalacivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Guernseythe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply; justice is administered by the Royal Court
Guineabased on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Guinea-Bissaubased on French civil law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Guyanabased on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Haitibased on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Heard Island and McDonald Islandsthe laws of Australia, where applicable, apply
Holy See (Vatican City)based on Code of Canon Law and revisions to it
Hondurasrooted in Roman and Spanish civil law with increasing influence of English common law; recent judicial reforms include abandoning Napoleonic legal codes in favor of the oral adversarial system; accepts ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Hong Kongbased on English common law
Hungarybased German-Austrian legal system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Icelandcivil law system based on Danish law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Indiabased on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
Indonesiabased on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Iranbased on Sharia law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Iraqbased on European civil and Islamic law under the framework outlined in the Iraqi Constitution; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Irelandbased on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Isle of Manthe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply and Manx statutes
Israelmixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Italybased on civil law system; appeals treated as new trials; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Jamaicabased on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Jan Mayenthe laws of Norway, where applicable, apply
Japanmodeled after German civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Jerseythe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply and local statutes; justice is administered by the Royal Court
Jordanbased on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Kazakhstanbased on Islamic law and Roman law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Kenyabased on Kenyan statutory law, Kenyan and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991
KiribatiNA
Korea, Northbased on Prussian civil law system with Japanese influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Korea, Southcombines elements of continental European civil law systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Kosovoevolving legal system under UNMIK
Kosovoevolving legal system based on terms of UN Special Envoy Martii AHTISAARI's Plan for Kosovo's supervised independence
Kuwaitcivil law system with Islamic law significant in personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Kyrgyzstanbased on French and Russian laws; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Laosbased on traditional customs, French legal norms and procedures, and socialist practice; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Latviabased on civil law system with traces of Socialist legal traditions and practices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Lebanonmixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Lesothobased on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Liberiadual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal practices for indigenous sector; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Libyabased on Italian and French civil law systems and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Liechtensteinlocal civil and penal codes based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Lithuaniabased on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Luxembourgbased on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Macaubased on Portuguese civil law system
Macedoniabased on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Madagascarbased on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Malawibased on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Malaysiabased on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; Islamic law is applied to Muslims in matters of family law and religion; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Maldivesbased on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Malibased on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Maltabased on English common law and Roman civil law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Marshall Islandsbased on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws
Mauritaniaa combination of Islamic law and French civil law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Mauritiusbased on French civil law system with elements of English common law in certain areas; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Mayottethe laws of France, where applicable, apply
Mexicomixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Micronesia, Federated States ofbased on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws
Moldovabased on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Monacobased on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Mongoliablend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Montenegrobased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
MontserratEnglish common law and statutory law
Moroccobased on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law systems; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Mozambiquebased on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Namibiabased on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution
Nauruacts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Navassa Islandthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Nepalbased on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Netherlandsbased on civil law system incorporating French penal theory; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Netherlands Antillesbased on Dutch civil law system with some English common law influence
New Caledoniabased on French civil law; the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands
New Zealandbased on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Nicaraguacivil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Nigerbased on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Nigeriabased on English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
NiueEnglish common law; note - Niue is self-governing, with the power to make its own laws
Norfolk Islandbased on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either Australian or Norfolk Island law
Northern Mariana Islandsbased on US system, except for customs, wages, immigration laws, and taxation
Norwaymixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Omanbased on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Pakistanbased on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Palaubased on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws
Panamabased on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Papua New Guineabased on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Paraguaybased on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Perubased on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Philippinesbased on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Pitcairn Islandslocal island by-laws
Polandbased on a mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover Communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts, but rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final; court decisions can be appealed to the European Court of Justice in Strasbourg; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Portugalbased on civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Puerto Ricobased on Spanish civil code and within the US Federal system of justice
Qatarbased on Islamic and civil law codes; discretionary system of law controlled by the Amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law dominates family and personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Romaniabased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Russiabased on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Rwandabased on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Saint Barthelemythe laws of France, where applicable, apply
Saint HelenaEnglish common law and statutes, supplemented by local statutes
Saint Kitts and Nevisbased on English common law
Saint Luciabased on English common law
Saint Martinthe laws of France, where applicable, apply
Saint Pierre and Miquelonthe laws of France, where applicable, apply
Saint Vincent and the Grenadinesbased on English common law
Samoabased on English common law and local customs; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
San Marinobased on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Sao Tome and Principebased on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Saudi Arabiabased on Shari'a law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Senegalbased on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Serbiabased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Seychellesbased on English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Sierra Leonebased on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Singaporebased on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Slovakiacivil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Sloveniabased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Solomon IslandsEnglish common law, which is widely disregarded
Somaliano national system; a mixture of English common law, Italian law, Islamic Shari'a, and Somali customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
South Africabased on Roman-Dutch law and English common law
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsthe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply; the senior magistrate from the Falkland Islands presides over the Magistrates Court
Spaincivil law system, with regional applications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Sri Lankaa highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Kandyan, and Jaffna Tamil law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Sudanbased on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; however, the CPA establishes some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Islamic law will not apply to the southern states
Surinamebased on Dutch legal system incorporating French penal theory; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Svalbardthe laws of Norway, where applicable, apply
Swazilandbased on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Swedencivil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Switzerlandcivil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Syriabased on a combination of French and Ottoman civil law; Islamic law is used in the family court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Taiwanbased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Tajikistanbased on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Tanzaniabased on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Thailandbased on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Timor-LesteUN-drafted legal system based on Indonesian law remains in place but is to be replaced by civil and penal codes based on Portuguese law; these have passed but have not been promulgated; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
TogoFrench-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
TokelauNew Zealand and local statutes
Tongabased on English common law
Trinidad and Tobagobased on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Tunisiabased on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Turkeycivil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Turkmenistanbased on civil law system and Islamic law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Turks and Caicos Islandsbased on laws of England and Wales, with a few adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas
TuvaluNA
Ugandain 1995, the government restored the legal system to one based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Ukrainebased on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
United Arab Emiratesbased on a dual system of Shari'a and civil courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
United Kingdombased on common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental influences; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
United Statesfederal court system based on English common law; each state has its own unique legal system, of which all but one (Louisiana, which is still influenced by the Napoleonic Code) is based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refugesthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Uruguaybased on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Uzbekistanbased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Vanuatuunified system being created from former dual French and British systems
Venezuelaopen, adversarial court system
Vietnambased on communist legal theory and French civil law system has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Virgin Islandsbased on US laws
Wake Islandthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Wallis and Futunathe laws of France, where applicable, apply
Worldall members of the UN are parties to the statute that established the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court
Yemenbased on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Zambiabased on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Zimbabwemixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

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