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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Greece
 
Flag of Greece                                Map of Greece
 
Background:Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship, which in 1967 suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country, lasted seven years. The 1974 democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981 Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the euro zone in 2001.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates:39 00 N, 22 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 131,940 sq km
land: 130,800 sq km
water: 1,140 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Alabama
Land boundaries:total: 1,228 km
border countries: Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Macedonia 246 km
Coastline:13,676 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m
Natural resources:lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential
Land use:arable land: 20.45%
permanent crops: 8.59%
other: 70.96% (2005)
Irrigated land:14,530 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:72 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 8.7 cu km/yr (16%/3%/81%)
per capita: 782 cu m/yr (1997)
Natural hazards:severe earthquakes
Environment—current issues:air pollution; water pollution
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Geography—note:strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
  
People
  
Population:10,706,290 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 14.3% (male 789,637/female 742,535)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 3,565,237/female 3,570,630)
65 years and over: 19% (male 895,384/female 1,142,867) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 41.2 years
male: 40 years
female: 42.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.163% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:9.62 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:10.33 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:2.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.063 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.998 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.783 male(s)/female
total population: 0.962 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 5.34 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.38 years
male: 76.85 years
female: 82.06 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.35 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:9,100 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Greek(s)
adjective: Greek
Ethnic groups:population: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)
note: percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity
Religions:Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
Languages:Greek 99% (official), other 1% (includes English and French)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97.8%
female: 94.2% (2001 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
conventional short form: Greece
local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia
local short form: Ellas or Ellada
former: Kingdom of Greece
Government type:parliamentary republic
Capital:name: Athens
geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos) and 1 autonomous region*; Achaia, Agion Oros* (Mt. Athos), Aitolia kai Akarnania, Argolis, Arkadia, Arta, Attiki, Chalkidiki, Chanion, Chios, Dodekanisos, Drama, Evros, Evrytania, Evvoia, Florina, Fokidos, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ileia, Imathia, Ioannina, Irakleion, Karditsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkyra, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Kyklades, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lefkas, Lesvos, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethynnis, Rodopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakynthos
Independence:1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:Independence Day, 25 March (1821)
Constitution:11 June 1975; amended March 1986 and April 2001
Legal system:based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:chief of state: President Karolos PAPOULIAS (since 12 March 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Konstandinos (Kostas) KARAMANLIS (since 7 March 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 February 2005 (next to be held by February 2010); according to the Greek Constitution, presidents may only serve two terms; president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote in election to become prime minister and form a government
election results: Karolos PAPOULIAS elected president; number of parliamentary votes, 279 out of 300
Legislative branch:unicameral Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: elections last held 16 September 2007 (next to be held by 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - ND 41.8%, PASOK 38.1%, KKE 8.2%, Synaspismos 5%, LAOS 3.8%, other 3.1%; seats by party - ND 152, PASOK 102, KKE 22, Synaspismos 14, LAOS 10
Judicial branch:Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council
Political parties and leaders:Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Alekos ALAVANOS]; Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Yiorgos PAPANDREOU]; Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Yeoryios KARATZAFERIS]
Political pressure groups and leaders:General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]; Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]; Civil Servants Confederation or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
International organization participation:Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Alexandros P. MALLIAS
chancery: 2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300
FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Tampa
consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel V. SPECKHARD
embassy: 91 Vasilisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens
mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108
telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951
FAX: [30] (210) 645-6282
consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki
Flag description:nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Greece has a capitalist economy with the public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP at least 75% of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 15% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP. The Greek economy grew by nearly 4.0% per year between 2003 and 2007, due partly to infrastructural spending related to the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, and in part to an increased availability of credit, which has sustained record levels of consumer spending. Greece violated the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criteria of no more than 3% of GDP from 2001 to 2006, but finally met that criteria in 2007. Public debt, inflation, and unemployment are above the euro-zone average, but are falling. The Greek Government continues to grapple with cutting government spending, reducing the size of the public sector, and reforming the labor and pension systems, in the face of often vocal opposition from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public. The economy remains an important domestic political issue in Greece and, while the ruling New Democracy government has had some success in improving economic growth and reducing the budget deficit, Athens faces long-term challenges in its effort to continue its economic reforms, especially social security reform and privatization.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$326.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$356.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:3.7% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$30,500 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 3.2%
industry: 20.6%
services: 76.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:4.94 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 12%
industry: 20%
services: 68% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:8.4% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 26% (2000 est.)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:33 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.6% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):26.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $111.9 billion
expenditures: $120.7 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:81.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
Industries:tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
Industrial production growth rate:3.2% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:56.13 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:54.31 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—exports:1.836 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:5.616 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:5,687 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:415,700 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:119,200 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:550,400 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:7 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:15.35 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:2.724 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:2.707 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:950.5 million cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-36.4 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$25.76 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
Exports—partners:Germany 11.5%, Italy 11.5%, Bulgaria 6.5%, UK 6.1%, Cyprus 5.5%, Turkey 5.2%, France 4.5%, US 4.5%, Spain 4.1% (2006)
Imports:$79.92 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports—partners:Germany 12.6%, Italy 11.5%, Russia 7.1%, France 6%, Netherlands 5.2%, South Korea 4.2% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$2.7 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$371.5 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$41.32 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$19.56 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$145 billion (2005)
Economic aid—recipient:$8 billion annually from EU (2000-06); Greece will receive about $3.8 billion per year between 2007-13 under the EU's Community Support Funds IV
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:6.185 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:11.098 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service
domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands
international: country code - 30; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cyprus; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 26, FM 88, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:36 (plus 1,341 repeaters); also 2 stations in the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (1995)
Internet country code:.gr
Internet hosts:905,824 (2007)
Internet users:2.048 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:81 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 66
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Heliports:9 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 1,166 km; oil 94 km (2007)
Railways:total: 2,571 km
standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge
dual gauge: 23 km combined 1.435 m and 1.000-m gauges (three rail system) (2006)
Roadways:total: 114,931 km
paved: 105,507 km (includes 880 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,424 km (2004)
Waterways:6 km
note: Corinth Canal (6 km) crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; shortens sea voyage by 325 km (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 824 ships (1000 GRT or over) 33,654,384 GRT/57,898,789 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 246, cargo 66, carrier 1, chemical tanker 52, combination ore/oil 1, container 43, liquefied gas 6, passenger 11, passenger/cargo 109, petroleum tanker 269, roll on/roll off 19, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 49 (Belgium 16, Cyprus 5, Italy 1, South Korea 2, UK 15, US 10)
registered in other countries: 2,324 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Bahamas 214, Barbados 11, Belgium 4, Bermuda 3, Cambodia 5, Cayman Islands 23, China 1, Comoros 8, Cyprus 292, Denmark 4, Dominica 8, Egypt 8, Georgia 7, Gibraltar 8, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 30, Isle of Man 48, Italy 13, Jamaica 8, Lebanon 2, Liberia 311, Maldives 1, Malta 448, Marshall Islands 226, Norway 6, Panama 505, Philippines 3, Portugal 4, Russia 1, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 2, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 14, Slovakia 4, St Kitts and Nevis 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 81, UAE 3, UK 6, Uruguay 1, Venezuela 3, unknown 8) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Agioitheodoroi, Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki
  
Military
  
Military branches:Hellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES), Hellenic Navy (Ellinikos Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polimiki Aeroporia, EPA) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory military service; during wartime the law allows for recruitment beginning January of the year of inductee's 18th birthday, thus including 17 year olds; 17 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation - 12 months for the Army, Air Force; 15 months for Navy; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2007)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 2,459,988
females age 18-49: 2,442,818 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 2,018,557
females age 18-49: 2,000,650 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 58,399
females age 18-49: 55,571 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:4.3% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Greece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Turkey; Greece rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy
Illicit drugs:a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime

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