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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Hungary
 
Flag of Hungary                                Map of Hungary
 
Background:Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates:47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources:bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use:arable land: 49.58%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 48.36% (2005)
Irrigated land:2,300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:120 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 21.03 cu km/yr (9%/59%/32%)
per capita: 2,082 cu m/yr (2001)
Environment—current issues:the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
  
People
  
Population:9,956,108 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 15.3% (male 785,643/female 741,907)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 3,399,926/female 3,498,403)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 554,356/female 975,873) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 38.9 years
male: 36.5 years
female: 41.5 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:-0.253% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:9.66 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:13.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.059 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.972 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.568 male(s)/female
total population: 0.909 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 8.21 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.91 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.92 years
male: 68.73 years
female: 77.38 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.33 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:2,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2001 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups:Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census)
Religions:Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5% (2001 census)
Languages:Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag
Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest
Independence:25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date)
National holiday:Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August
Constitution:18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system:based German-Austrian legal system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed and relieved of their duties by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004
election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 and 23 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSzP 43.2%, Fidesz-KDNP 42%, SzDSz 6.5%, MDF 5%, other 3.3%; seats by party - MSzP 190, Fidesz-KDNP 164, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 1
Judicial branch:Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Janos KOKA]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Ferenc SOMOGYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador April H. FOLEY
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-25 average. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $60 billion since 1989. Hungary issues investment-grade sovereign debt. International observers, however, have expressed concerns over Hungary's fiscal and current account deficits. In 2007, Hungary eliminated a trade deficit that had persisted for several years. Inflation declined from 14% in 1998 to a low of 3.7% in 2006, but jumped to 7.8% in 2007. Unemployment has persisted above 6%. Hungary's labor force participation rate of 57% is one of the lowest in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Germany is by far Hungary's largest economic partner. Policy challenges include cutting the public sector deficit to 4% of GDP by 2008, from about 6% in 2007. The government's austerity program of tax hikes and subsidy cuts has reduced Hungary's large budget deficit, but the reforms have dampened domestic consumption, slowing GDP growth to less than 2% in 2007. The government will need to pass additional reforms to ensure the long-term stability of public finances. The government plans to eventually lower its public sector deficit to below 3% of GDP to adopt the euro.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$194.2 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$136.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:2.1% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$19,500 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 32.4%
services: 64.2% (2007 est.)
Labor force:4.19 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 33.3%
services: 61.2% (2003)
Unemployment rate:7.1% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:8.6% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 22.2% (2002)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:28 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):7.8% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):21.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $62.25 billion
expenditures: $69.98 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:70.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Industries:mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:5% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:33.69 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:35.98 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:9.41 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:15.64 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:42,180 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:152,200 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:58,380 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:150,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:102.5 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:2.904 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:14.37 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:11.51 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:32.86 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-6.681 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$85.73 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6% (2003)
Exports—partners:Germany 29.5%, Italy 5.6%, France 5%, Austria 5%, UK 4.5%, Romania 4.2%, Poland 4.1% (2006)
Imports:$85.99 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0% (2003)
Imports—partners:Germany 27.1%, Russia 8.2%, China 6.9%, Austria 6.2%, France 4.7%, Italy 4.6%, Netherlands 4.3%, Poland 4.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$24.25 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$142.9 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$96.61 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$36.24 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$41.93 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$302.6 million in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004)
Currency (code):forint (HUF)
Exchange rates:forints per US dollar - 186.16 (2007), 210.39 (2006), 199.58 (2005), 202.75 (2004), 224.31 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:3.35 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:9.965 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations:AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:35 (plus 161 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:.hu
Internet hosts:2.313 million (2007)
Internet users:3.5 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:46 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 26
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Heliports:5 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2007)
Railways:total: 8,057 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,802 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 159,568 km
paved: 70,050 km (30,874 km of interurban roads including 626 km of expressways)
unpaved: 89,518 km (2005)
Waterways:1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)
  
Military
  
Military branches:Ground Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in June 2004; 6-month service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 50 (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 2,303,116
females age 18-49: 2,265,463 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,780,513
females age 18-49: 1,864,580 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 63,847
females age 18-49: 61,037 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.75% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking, are improving, but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy

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