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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Kiribati
 
Flag of Kiribati                                Map of Kiribati
 
Background:The Gilbert Islands were granted self-rule by the UK in 1971 and complete independence in 1979 under the new name of Kiribati. The US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and Line Island groups in a 1979 treaty of friendship with Kiribati.
  
Geography
  
Location:Oceania, group of 33 coral atolls in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the Equator; the capital Tarawa is about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia; note - on 1 January 1995, Kiribati proclaimed that all of its territory lies in the same time zone as its Gilbert Islands group (UTC +12) even though the Phoenix Islands and the Line Islands under its jurisdiction lie on the other side of the International Date Line
Geographic coordinates:1 25 N, 173 00 E
Map references:Oceania
Area:total: 811 sq km
land: 811 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands
Area—comparative:four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:1,143 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Banaba 81 m
Natural resources:phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)
Land use:arable land: 2.74%
permanent crops: 47.95%
other: 49.31% (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Natural hazards:typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them very sensitive to changes in sea level
Environment—current issues:heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru
  
People
  
Population:107,817 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 38.2% (male 20,886/female 20,322)
15-64 years: 58.4% (male 31,083/female 31,884)
65 years and over: 3.4% (male 1,554/female 2,088) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 20.4 years
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:2.235% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:30.48 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8.12 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.028 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.975 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.744 male(s)/female
total population: 0.986 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 46.02 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.03 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 62.45 years
male: 59.41 years
female: 65.63 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:4.12 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:NA
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS—deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
adjective: I-Kiribati
Ethnic groups:Micronesian 98.8%, other 1.2% (2000 census)
Religions:Roman Catholic 52%, Protestant (Congregational) 40%, other (includes Seventh-Day Adventist, Muslim, Baha'i, Latter-day Saints, Church of God) 8% (1999)
Languages:I-Kiribati, English (official)
Literacy:definition: NA
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati
conventional short form: Kiribati
local long form: Republic of Kiribati
local short form: Kiribati
note: pronounced keer-ree-bahss
former: Gilbert Islands
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Tarawa
geographic coordinates: 1 19 N, 172 58 E
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands; note - in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21 island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)
Independence:12 July 1979 (from UK)
National holiday:Independence Day, 12 July (1979)
Constitution:12 July 1979
Legal system:NA
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO
cabinet: 12-member cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Parliament
elections: the House of Parliament chooses the presidential candidates from among its members and then those candidates compete in a general election; president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held 17 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Anote TONG 63.7%, Nabuti MWEMWENIKARAWA 32.9%
Legislative branch:unicameral House of Parliament or Maneaba Ni Maungatabu (46 seats; 44 members elected by popular vote, 1 ex officio member - the attorney general, 1 nominated by the Rabi Council of Leaders (representing Banaba Island); to serve four-year terms)
elections: legislative elections were held in two rounds - the first round on 22 August 2007 and the second round on 30 August 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA, other 2 (includes attorney general)
Judicial branch:Court of Appeal; High Court; 26 Magistrates' courts; judges at all levels are appointed by the president
Political parties and leaders:Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK [Taberannang TIMEON]; Maneaban Te Mauri Party or MTM [Teburoro TITO]; Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP; National Progressive Party or NPP [Dr. Harry TONG]
note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACP, ADB, C, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the US:Kiribati does not have an embassy in the US; there is an honorary consulate in Honolulu
Diplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in Kiribati; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati
Flag description:the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has few natural resources. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence from the UK in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. Tourism provides more than one-fifth of GDP. Private sector initiatives and a financial sector are in the early stages of development. Foreign financial aid from UK, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and China equals more than 10% of GDP. Remittances from seamen on merchant ships abroad account for more than $5 million each year. Kiribati receives around $15 million annually for the government budget from an Australian trust fund.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$240 million (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$73 million (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:0.3% (2005)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$1,100 (2004 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 8.9%
industry: 24.2%
services: 66.8% (2004)
Labor force:7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (2001 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 32%
services: 65.3% (2000)
Unemployment rate:2% official rate; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):0.5% (2005 est.)
Budget:revenues: $55.52 million
expenditures: $59.71 million (FY05)
Agriculture—products:copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; fish
Industries:fishing, handicrafts
Industrial production growth rate:0.7% (1991 est.)
Electricity—production:9 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:8.37 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:220 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:216.4 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-19.87 million (2004)
Exports:$17 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports—commodities:copra 62%, coconuts, seaweed, fish
Exports—partners:US 22.8%, Belgium 21.5%, Japan 14.3%, Samoa 7.8%, Australia 7.5%, Malaysia 6.7%, Taiwan 5.6%, Denmark 4.6% (2006)
Imports:$62 million c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports—commodities:foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel
Imports—partners:Australia 33%, Fiji 27.1%, Japan 18.1%, NZ 6.9% (2006)
Debt—external:$10 million (1999 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$27.84 million largely from UK and Japan (2005)
Currency (code):Australian dollar (AUD)
Exchange rates:Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006), 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003)
Fiscal year:NA
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:4,500 (2002)
Telephones—mobile cellular:600 (2004)
Telephone system:general assessment: generally good quality national and international service
domestic: wire line service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; wireless service available in Tarawa since 1999
international: country code - 686; Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (may be inactive) (2002)
Television broadcast stations:1 (possibly inactive) (2002)
Internet country code:.ki
Internet hosts:41 (2007)
Internet users:2,000 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:19 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Roadways:total: 670 km (1999)
Waterways:5 km (small network of canals in Line Islands) (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 28,435 GRT/42,682 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 3, passenger/cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 2
foreign-owned: 3 (Malaysia 1, Singapore 1, Turkey 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Betio
  
Military
  
Military branches:no regular military forces; Police Force (carries out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; small police posts are on all islands) (2007)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 21,938 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 14,231 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 1,128 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:NA
Military—note:Kiribati does not have military forces; defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none

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