Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD · COUNTRY INDEX · FLAG INDEX · MAP INDEX
  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Slovakia
 
Flag of Slovakia                                Map of Slovakia
 
Background:The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I allowed the Slovaks to join the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central Europe, south of Poland
Geographic coordinates:48 40 N, 19 30 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 48,845 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
water: 45 sq km
Area—comparative:about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:total: 1,524 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 677 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 97 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Natural resources:brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land use:arable land: 29.23%
permanent crops: 2.67%
other: 68.1% (2005)
Irrigated land:1,830 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:50.1 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 1.04
per capita: 193 cu m/yr (2003)
Natural hazards:NA
Environment—current issues:air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
  
People
  
Population:5,447,502 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 16.4% (male 456,105/female 435,154)
15-64 years: 71.5% (male 1,938,846/female 1,955,382)
65 years and over: 12.2% (male 247,728/female 414,287) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 36.1 years
male: 34.5 years
female: 37.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.147% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:10.65 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:9.48 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.992 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.598 male(s)/female
total population: 0.942 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.95 years
male: 71 years
female: 79.11 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.33 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
Ethnic groups:Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
Religions:Roman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek Catholic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)
Languages:Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2001 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko
Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky kraj, Bratislavsky kraj, Kosicky kraj, Nitriansky kraj, Presovsky kraj, Trenciansky kraj, Trnavsky kraj, Zilinsky kraj
Independence:1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday:Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Constitution:ratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Legal system:civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 July 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Dusan CAPLOVIC, Robert KALINAK, Stefan HARABIN, Jan MIKOLAJ (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 April and 17 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%
Legislative branch:unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 17 June 2006 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer 29.1%, SDKU 18.4%, SMK 11.7%, SNS 11.7%, LS-HZDS 8.8%, KDH 8.3%, other 12%; seats by party - Smer 50, SDKU 31, SMK 20, SNS 19, LS-HZDS 16, KDH 14
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)
Political parties and leaders:Parties in the Parliament: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Pal CSAKY]; People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]; Parties outside the Parliament: Agrarian Party of the Provinces or ASV [Jozef VASKEBA]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter TATAR]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Hope or NADEJ [Alexandra NOVOTNA]; Left-wing Bloc or LB [Jozef KALMAN]; Mission 21 - New Christian Democracy or MISIA 21 [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement for Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Ladislav KOZMON]; Prosperita Slovenska or PS [Frantisek A. ZVRSKOVEC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Vladimir DADO]; Slovak National Coalition or SLNKO [Vitazoslav MORIC]; Slovak People's Party or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Union of the Workers of Slovakia or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK; Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS; The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
International organization participation:ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Rastislav KACER
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Vincent OBSITNIK
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the coat of arms of Slovakia (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white Cross of Lorraine surmounting three blue hills); the coat of arms is centered vertically and offset slightly to the hoist side
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government made excellent progress during 2001-04 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business friendly policies such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Foreign investment in the automotive sector has been strong. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-07 despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 18% in 2003-04, dropped to 8.6% in 2007 but remains the economy's Achilles heel. Slovakia joined the EU on 1 May 2004 and will be the second of the new EU member states to adopt the euro in 2009 if it continues to meet euro adoption criteria in 2008. Despite its 2006 pre-election promises to loosen fiscal policy and reverse the previous DZURINDA government's pro-market reforms, FICO's cabinet has thus far been careful to keep a lid on spending in order to meet euro adoption criteria. The FICO government is pursuing a state-interventionist economic policy, however, and has pushed to regulate energy and food prices.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$107.6 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$71.57 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:8.8% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$19,800 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 3.4%
industry: 32.8%
services: 63.8% (2007 est.)
Labor force:2.661 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture 5.8%, industry 29.3%, construction 9%, services 55.9% (2003)
Unemployment rate:8.6% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:21% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 20.9% (1996)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:26 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.7% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):26.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $33.07 billion
expenditures: $35.13 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:34.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Industries:metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Industrial production growth rate:12% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:29.89 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:24.93 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:11.27 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:8.005 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:12,840 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:79,350 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:77,660 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:138,200 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:9 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:141.9 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:6.231 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:354.9 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:6.396 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:14.39 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-3.119 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$55.31 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:vehicles 25.9%, machinery and electrical equipment 21.3%, base metals 14.6%, chemicals and minerals 10.1%, plastics 5.4% (2004)
Exports—partners:Germany 23.5%, Czech Republic 13.8%, Italy 6.5%, Poland 6.2%, Hungary 6.1%, Austria 6.1%, France 4.3%, Netherlands 4.3% (2006)
Imports:$57.06 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and transport equipment 41.1%, intermediate manufactured goods 19.3%, fuels 12.3%, chemicals 9.8%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 10.2% (2003)
Imports—partners:Germany 23%, Czech Republic 18.1%, Russia 11.2%, Hungary 6.1%, Austria 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, Italy 4.4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$17.72 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$36.66 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$19.08 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$987.1 million (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$5.574 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$235 million in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004)
Currency (code):Slovak koruna (SKK)
Exchange rates:koruny per US dollar - 24.919 (2007), 29.611 (2006), 31.018 (2005), 32.257 (2004), 36.773 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:1.167 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:4.893 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: Slovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular services
domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Radio broadcast stations:AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:80 (national broadcasting 6, regional 7, local 67) (2004)
Internet country code:.sk
Internet hosts:821,816 (2007)
Internet users:2.256 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:35 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Heliports:1 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 6,769 km; oil 416 km (2007)
Railways:total: 3,662 km
broad gauge: 100 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,512 km 1.435-m gauge (1,588 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2006)
Roadways:total: 42,993 km
paved: 37,533 km (includes 316 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,460 km (2004)
Waterways:172 km (on Danube River) (2005)
Merchant marine:total: 54 ships (1000 GRT or over) 260,766 GRT/361,651 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 45, refrigerated cargo 3
foreign-owned: 46 (Bulgaria 7, Estonia 2, Greece 4, Israel 6, Italy 1, Poland 2, Syria 2, Turkey 11, Ukraine 10, UK 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Bratislava, Komarno
  
Military
  
Military branches:Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2005)
Military service age and obligation:17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 1,351,848
females age 18-49: 1,322,647 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,089,645
females age 18-49: 1,093,077 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 41,544
females age 18-49: 40,183 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.87% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy

CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD · COUNTRY INDEX · FLAG INDEX · MAP INDEX
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
 
Loading
Click here to shop the Bartleby Bookstore.

Shakespeare · Bible · Strunk · Anatomy · Nonfiction · Quotations · Reference · Fiction · Poetry
© 1993–2014 Bartleby.com · [Top 150] · Subjects · Titles · Authors