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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Moldova
 
Flag of Moldova                                Map of Moldova
 
Background:Formerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
  
Geography
  
Location:Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates:47 00 N, 29 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 33,843 sq km
land: 33,371 sq km
water: 472 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:total: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain:rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Dniester River 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resources:lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Land use:arable land: 54.52%
permanent crops: 8.81%
other: 36.67% (2005)
Irrigated land:3,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:11.7 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 2.31 cu km/yr (10%/58%/33%)
per capita: 549 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Environment—current issues:heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
  
People
  
Population:4,320,490 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 16.5% (male 365,733/female 347,305)
15-64 years: 72.6% (male 1,520,094/female 1,616,014)
65 years and over: 10.9% (male 175,113/female 296,231) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 34 years
male: 32.1 years
female: 36.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:-0.11% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:10.88 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:10.85 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-1.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.053 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.941 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.591 male(s)/female
total population: 0.912 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 13.88 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.2 years
male: 66.51 years
female: 74.11 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.25 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:5,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 300 (2001 est.)
Nationality:noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups:Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Religions:Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Languages:Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.7%
female: 98.6% (2005 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Chisinau (Kishinev)
note: pronounced kee-shee-now
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
Independence:27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitution:new constitution adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; replaced old Soviet constitution of 1979
Legal system:based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001); First Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida GRECIANII (since 10 October 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001; cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001
election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Legislative branch:unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc 34, PPCD 11
Judicial branch:Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Political parties and leaders:Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Dumitru DIACOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladmir FILAT]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Party for Social Democracy or PDSM [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae CHIRTOACA
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Michael D. KIRBY
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
Flag description:same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy was underscored at the end of 2005, when a Russian-owned electrical station in Moldova's separatist Transnistria region cut off power to Moldova and Russia's Gazprom cut off natural gas in disputes over pricing. Russia's decision to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with its decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas, slowed GDP growth in 2006. However, in 2007 growth returned to the 6% level Moldova had achieved in 2000-05, boosted by Russia's partial removal of the bans, solid fixed capital investment, and strong domestic demand driven by remittances from abroad. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls. Nevertheless, the government's primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The granting of EU trade preferences and increased exports to Russia will encourage higher growth rates in 2008, but the agreements are unlikely to serve as a panacea, given the extent to which export success depends on higher quality standards and other factors. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors. Also, the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region continues to be a drag on the Moldovan economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$9.999 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$4.021 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:6% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$2,200 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 18.4%
industry: 22.4%
services: 59.2% (2007 est.)
Labor force:1.333 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 40.7%
industry: 12.1%
services: 47.2% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:2.1%; note - roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:29.5% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 26.4% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:33.2 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):12.5% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):25.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $1.764 billion
expenditures: $1.771 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:24.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Industries:sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:6% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:3.881 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:5.551 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:220 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:3.361 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:14,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:31.69 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:14,200 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:2.35 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:2.35 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-569 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$1.43 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports—partners:Russia 22.8%, Germany 12.2%, Italy 11.1%, Romania 9.7%, Ukraine 9.6%, Belarus 5.7% (2006)
Imports:$3.59 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports—partners:Russia 20.8%, Ukraine 16.9%, Romania 13.4%, Germany 8.7%, Italy 6.1%, Poland 4.4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.05 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$2.774 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$573.9 million (2004)
Economic aid—recipient:$191.8 million (2005)
Currency (code):Moldovan leu (MDL)
Exchange rates:lei per US dollar - 12.177 (2007), 13.131 (2006), 12.6 (2005), 12.33 (2004), 13.945 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:1.018 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1.358 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
domestic: depending on location, new subscribers may face long wait for service; multiple private operators of GSM mobile cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik (2006)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 2, FM 29, shortwave NA (2006)
Television broadcast stations:40 (2006)
Internet country code:.md
Internet hosts:112,026 (2007)
Internet users:727,700 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:10 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 1,980 km (2007)
Railways:total: 1,138 km
broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 12,733 km
paved: 10,976 km
unpaved: 1,757 km (2004)
Waterways:424 km (on Dniester and Prut rivers) (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 15,668 GRT/17,585 DWT
by type: cargo 8
foreign-owned: 3 (Ukraine 3) (2007)
  
Military
  
Military branches:National Army: Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (2006)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory military service; 12-month service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 1,066,459
females age 18-49: 1,117,070 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 693,913
females age 18-49: 911,568 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 43,729
females age 18-49: 42,354 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.4% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under OSCE supervision
Illicit drugs:limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity

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