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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Mongolia
 
Flag of Mongolia                                Map of Mongolia
 
Background:The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000, but 2004 elections reduced MPRP representation and, therefore, its authority.
  
Geography
  
Location:Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates:46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:Asia
Area:total: 1,564,116 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:total: 8,220 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain:vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Natural resources:oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land use:arable land: 0.76%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.24% (2005)
Irrigated land:840 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:34.8 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.44 cu km/yr (20%/27%/52%)
per capita: 166 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Environment—current issues:limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
  
People
  
Population:2,951,786 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 28.7% (male 432,309/female 415,382)
15-64 years: 67.4% (male 994,186/female 995,986)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 49,517/female 64,406) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 24.6 years
male: 24.2 years
female: 24.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.486% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:21.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.998 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.769 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 42.65 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 45.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.99 years
male: 64.61 years
female: 69.48 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:2.25 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:less than 500 (2003 est)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups:Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Religions:Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40% (2004)
Languages:Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98%
female: 97.5% (2000 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
Government type:mixed parliamentary/presidential
Capital:name: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
Administrative divisions:21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence:11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday:Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Constitution:12 February 1992
Legal system:blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Sanjaa BAYAR (since 22 November 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 6 December 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural
election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10
Legislative branch:unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms
elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held on 29 June 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.8%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.4%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - 2 seats disputed and unfilled; following June 2004 election MDC collapsed
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Political parties and leaders:Citizens Will Party [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN] (also called Civil Will); Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Sanji BAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People's Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]
note: DP and Motherland Party formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with cooperation from Civil Will and Republican parties contested June 2004 elections as single party; coalition was dissolved in December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ADB, ARF, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Banzragch ODONJIL
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. MINTON
embassy: Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13
telephone: [976] (11) 329-095
FAX: [976] (11) 320-776
Flag description:three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, gold, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten account for a large part of industrial production and foreign direct investment. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession because of political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-02 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% in 2004, 5.5% in 2005, 7.5% in 2006, and 9.9% in 2007 largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia is experiencing its highest inflation rate in over a decade as consumer prices in 2007 rose 15%, largely because of increased fuel and food costs. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 95% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Trade with China represents more than half of Mongolia's total external trade - China receives nearly 70% of Mongolia's exports. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$8.448 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$3.854 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:8.4% (2006)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$2,900 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 18.8%
industry: 40.4%
services: 40.8% (2006)
Labor force:1.042 million (2006)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 39.9%
industry: 11.7%
services: 49.4% (2006)
Unemployment rate:3.2% (2006)
Population below poverty line:36.1% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 24.6% (2002)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:32.8 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):9.5% (2005 est.)
Budget:revenues: $1.162 billion
expenditures: $1.057 billion (2006)
Agriculture—products:wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Industries:construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate:3% (2006 est.)
Electricity—production:3.43 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—consumption:2.94 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—exports:15.95 million kWh (2006)
Electricity—imports:125 million kWh (2006)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:12,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:821.9 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—imports:12,280 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports:$1.542 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Exports—commodities:copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports—partners:China 71.7%, Canada 11.7%, US 7.3% (2006)
Imports:$1.486 billion c.i.f. (2006)
Imports—commodities:machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports—partners:Russia 29.7%, China 29.4%, Japan 11.9% (2006)
Debt—external:$1.38 billion (2005)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$45.62 million (2005)
Economic aid—recipient:$211.9 million (2005)
Currency (code):togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Exchange rates:togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,170 (2007), 1,179.6 (2006), 1,205 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:158,900 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:775,300 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas
domestic: very low fixed-line density; there are multiple mobile cellular service providers and subscribership is increasing rapidly; a fiber-optic network is also being installed that will improve broadband and communication services between major urban centers
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7
Radio broadcast stations:AM 7, FM 115 (includes 20 National radio broadcaster repeaters), shortwave 4 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:456 (including provincial and low-power repeaters) (2006)
Internet country code:.mn
Internet hosts:298 (2007)
Internet users:268,300 (2005)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:44 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 13
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 31
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Heliports:1 (2007)
Railways:total: 1,810 km
broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 49,250 km
paved: 1,724 km
unpaved: 47,526 km (2002)
Waterways:580 km
note: only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)
Merchant marine:total: 73 ships (1000 GRT or over) 448,252 GRT/668,689 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 12, cargo 52, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 62 (Bulgaria 2, China 3, Hong Kong 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 1, Malaysia 1, Russia 17, Singapore 12, Syria 1, Thailand 1, Ukraine 3, UAE 5, Vietnam 14) (2007)
  
Military
  
Military branches:Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air Force; there is no navy (2008)
Military service age and obligation:18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 736,182
females age 18-49: 734,679 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 570,435
females age 18-49: 607,918 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 34,674
females age 18-49: 34,251 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.4% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none

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