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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Mali
 
Flag of Mali                                Map of Mali
 
Background:The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup - led by the current president Amadou TOURE - enabling Mali's emergence as one of the strongest democracies on the continent. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, KONARE stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was subsequently elected to a second term in 2007. The elections were widely judged to be free and fair.
  
Geography
  
Location:Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates:17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain:mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources:gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:arable land: 3.76%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 96.21% (2005)
Irrigated land:2,360 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:100 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
per capita: 484 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment—current issues:deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
  
People
  
Population:11,995,402 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 48.2% (male 2,921,914/female 2,853,976)
15-64 years: 48.8% (male 2,891,494/female 2,959,142)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 149,301/female 219,575) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 15.9 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:2.681% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:49.61 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:16.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-6.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.024 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.977 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.988 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 105.65 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 115.29 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 95.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 49.51 years
male: 47.6 years
female: 51.46 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:7.38 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:1.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:140,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:12,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups:Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Religions:Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%
Languages:French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.4%
male: 53.5%
female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence:22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday:Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitution:adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system:based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Modibo SIDIBE (since 28 September 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 29 April 2007 (next to be held April in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (including ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (including RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
International organization participation:ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Abdoulaye DIOP
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Terrence P. MCCULLEY
embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 270-2300
FAX: [223] 270-2479
Flag description:three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. The government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a 5% average in 1996-2007. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$14.18 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$6.936 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:4.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$1,200 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 45%
industry: 17%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Labor force:3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:14.6% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:64% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.2% (2001)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:40.1 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):4.5% (2002 est.)
Budget:revenues: $764 million
expenditures: $828 million (2002 est.)
Agriculture—products:cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate:NA%
Electricity—production:444 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:412.9 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:4,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:4,369 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports:$294 million f.o.b. (2006)
Exports—commodities:cotton, gold, livestock
Exports—partners:China 26.8%, Germany 24.9%, Thailand 7.1%, Taiwan 4.9%, Bangladesh 4% (2006)
Imports:$2.358 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Imports—commodities:petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports—partners:France 12.8%, Senegal 12.2%, Cote d'Ivoire 10.5% (2006)
Debt—external:$2.8 billion (2002)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$691.5 million (2005)
Currency (code):Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange rates:Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 493.51 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:82,500 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1.513 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: fixed-line availability is gradually increasing, but subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to 13 per 100 persons
international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 230 (27 regional and government stations, and 203 private stations), shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:2 (plus repeaters) (2007)
Internet country code:.ml
Internet hosts:28 (2007)
Internet users:70,000 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:29 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Railways:total: 729 km
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 18,709 km
paved: 3,368 km
unpaved: 15,341 km (2004)
Waterways:1,800 km (2007)
Ports and terminals:Koulikoro
  
Military
  
Military branches:Malian Armed Forces: Army, Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 2,094,432
females age 18-49: 2,027,352 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,244,176
females age 18-49: 1,226,226 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.9% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 6,165 (Mauritania) (2006)

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