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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Mauritius
 
Flag of Mauritius                                Map of Mauritius
 
Background:Although known to Arab and Malay sailors as early as the 10th century, Mauritius was first explored by the Portuguese in 1505; it was subsequently held by the Dutch, French, and British before independence was attained in 1968. A stable democracy with regular free elections and a positive human rights record, the country has attracted considerable foreign investment and has earned one of Africa's highest per capita incomes. Recent poor weather, declining sugar prices, and declining textile and apparel production, have slowed economic growth, leading to some protests over standards of living in the Creole community.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar
Geographic coordinates:20 17 S, 57 33 E
Map references:Political Map of the World
Area:total: 2,040 sq km
land: 2,030 sq km
water: 10 sq km
note: includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and Rodrigues
Area—comparative:almost 11 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:177 km
Maritime claims:measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)
Terrain:small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central plateau
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Piton 828 m
Natural resources:arable land, fish
Land use:arable land: 49.02%
permanent crops: 2.94%
other: 48.04% (2005)
Irrigated land:220 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:2.2 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.61 cu km/yr (25%/14%/60%)
per capita: 488 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards
Environment—current issues:water pollution, degradation of coral reefs
Environment—international agreements:party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:the main island, from which the country derives its name, is of volcanic origin and is almost entirely surrounded by coral reefs
  
People
  
Population:1,250,882 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 23.5% (male 147,808/female 146,270)
15-64 years: 69.8% (male 436,043/female 437,441)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 32,475/female 50,845) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 31.2 years
male: 30.3 years
female: 32.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.798% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:15.26 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:6.88 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.011 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.997 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.639 male(s)/female
total population: 0.971 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 14.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 16.72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.88 years
male: 68.92 years
female: 76.9 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.94 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:700 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:noun: Mauritian(s)
adjective: Mauritian
Ethnic groups:Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%
Religions:Hindu 48%, Roman Catholic 23.6%, Muslim 16.6%, other Christian 8.6%, other 2.5%, unspecified 0.3%, none 0.4% (2000 census)
Languages:Creole 80.5%, Bhojpuri 12.1%, French 3.4%, English (official; spoken by less than 1% of the population), other 3.7%, unspecified 0.3% (2000 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 84.4%
male: 88.4%
female: 80.5% (2000 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Mauritius
conventional short form: Mauritius
local long form: Republic of Mauritius
local short form: Mauritius
Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Port Louis
geographic coordinates: 20 09 S, 57 29 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega Islands*, Black River, Cargados Carajos Shoals*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart, Rodrigues*, Savanne
Independence:12 March 1968 (from UK)
National holiday:Independence Day, 12 March (1968)
Constitution:12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992
Legal system:based on French civil law system with elements of English common law in certain areas; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 7 October 2003); Vice President Abdool Raouf BUNDHUN (since 25 February 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM (since 5 July 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 25 February 2002 (next to be held in 2007); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly
election results: Karl OFFMANN elected president and Raouf BUNDHUN elected vice president; percent of vote by the National Assembly - NA%; note - Karl OFFMANN stepped down on 30 September 2003
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly (70 seats; 62 members elected by popular vote, 8 appointed by the election commission to give representation to various ethnic minorities; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 3 July 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AS 38, MSM/MMM 22, OPR 2; appointed seats - AS 4, MSM/MMM 2, OPR 2
Judicial branch:Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:Alliance Sociale or AS [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM] (governing coalition - includes MLD, MMSM, MR, MSD, PMXD); Mauritian Labor Party or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM]; Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul BERENGER]; Mauritian Socialist Militant Movement or MMSM [Madan DOLLOO]; Militant Socialist Movement or MSM [Nando BODHA]; Mouvement Republicain or MR [Jayarama VALAYDEN]; Parti Mauricien Xavier Duval or PMXD [Xavier Luc DUVAL]; Rodrigues Movement or MR [Joseph (Nicholas) Von MALLY]; Rodrigues Peoples Organization or OPR [Serge CLAIR]
Political pressure groups and leaders:various labor unions
International organization participation:ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Usha JEETAH
chancery: 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 441, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-1491, 1492
FAX: [1] (202) 966-0983
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Cesar CABRERA
embassy: 4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis
mailing address: international mail: P. O. Box 544, Port Louis; US mail: American Embassy, Port Louis, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2450
telephone: [230] 202-4400
FAX: [230] 208-9534
Flag description:four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has developed from a low-income, agriculturally based economy to a middle-income diversified economy with growing industrial, financial, and tourist sectors. For most of the period, annual growth has been in the order of 5% to 6%. This remarkable achievement has been reflected in more equitable income distribution, increased life expectancy, lowered infant mortality, and a much-improved infrastructure. The economy rests on sugar, tourism, textiles and apparel, and financial services, and is expanding into fish processing, information and communications technology, and hospitality and property development. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area and accounts for 15% of export earnings. The government's development strategy centers on creating vertical and horizontal clusters of development in these sectors. Mauritius has attracted more than 32,000 offshore entities, many aimed at commerce in India, South Africa, and China. Investment in the banking sector alone has reached over $1 billion. Mauritius, with its strong textile sector, has been well poised to take advantage of the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).
GDP (purchasing power parity):$14.9 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$7.03 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5.5% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$11,900 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 4.8%
industry: 25%
services: 70.1% (2007 est.)
Labor force:550,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture and fishing 14%, construction and industry 36%, transportation and communication 7%, trade, restaurants, hotels 16%, finance 3%, other services 24% (1995)
Unemployment rate:9.2% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:10% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income—Gini index:37 (1987 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):9.1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):23.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $1.34 billion
expenditures: $1.642 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2007 est.)
Public debt:59.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses; cattle, goats; fish
Industries:food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, clothing, mining, chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:4.7% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:2.122 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:1.973 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:22,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:21,380 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-552 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$2.475 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:clothing and textiles, sugar, cut flowers, molasses, fish
Exports—partners:UK 32.5%, France 15.1%, UAE 11.4%, US 8.3%, Madagascar 4.8% (2006)
Imports:$3.627 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:manufactured goods, capital equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports—partners:France 14.3%, India 13.6%, China 8.6%, South Africa 7.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.772 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$2.583 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$3.598 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$31.93 million (2005)
Currency (code):Mauritian rupee (MUR)
Exchange rates:Mauritian rupees per US dollar - 31.798 (2007), 31.656 (2006), 29.496 (2005), 27.499 (2004), 27.902 (2003)
Fiscal year:1 July - 30 June
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:357,300 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:772,400 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: small system with good service
domestic: monopoly over fixed-line services terminated in 2005; fixed-line teledensity roughly 30 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services launched in 1989 with teledensity in 2006 exceeding 60 per 100 persons
international: country code - 230; landing point for the SAFE submarine cable that provides links to Asia and South Africa where it connects to the SAT-3/WASC submarine cable that provides further links to parts of East Africa, and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries
Radio broadcast stations:AM 4, FM 9, shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:2 (plus several repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:.mu
Internet hosts:9,792 (2007)
Internet users:182,000 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:5 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways:total: 2,020 km
paved: 2,020 km (includes 75 km of expressways) (2005)
Merchant marine:total: 5 ships (1000 GRT or over) 19,417 GRT/19,700 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 2, passenger/cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1
foreign-owned: 2 (India 2) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Port Louis
  
Military
  
Military branches:no regular military forces; National Police Force, Special Mobile Force, National Coast Guard (2007)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 313,271 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.3% (2006 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory), and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly in Mauritius; claims French-administered Tromelin Island
Illicit drugs:consumer and transshipment point for heroin from South Asia; small amounts of cannabis produced and consumed locally; significant offshore financial industry creates potential for money laundering, but corruption levels are relatively low and the government appears generally to be committed to regulating its banking industry

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