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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Oman
 
Flag of Oman                                Map of Oman
 
Background:The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered on Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, a newly established sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, but it never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said al-Said overthrew the restrictive rule of his father; he has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.
  
Geography
  
Location:Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
Geographic coordinates:21 00 N, 57 00 E
Map references:Middle East
Area:total: 212,460 sq km
land: 212,460 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:total: 1,374 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km
Coastline:2,092 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Terrain:central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m
Natural resources:petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Land use:arable land: 0.12%
permanent crops: 0.14%
other: 99.74% (2005)
Irrigated land:720 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:1 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 1.36 cu km/yr (7%/2%/90%)
per capita: 529 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
Environment—current issues:rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
  
People
  
Population:3,204,897
note: includes 577,293 non-nationals (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 42.7% (male 698,461/female 670,793)
15-64 years: 54.6% (male 1,026,686/female 723,712)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 47,534/female 37,711) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 18.9 years
male: 21.5 years
female: 16.5 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:3.234% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:35.76 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:3.78 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.419 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.26 male(s)/female
total population: 1.238 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 18.28 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.62 years
male: 71.37 years
female: 75.99 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:5.7 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:1,300 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani
Ethnic groups:Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
Religions:Ibadhi Muslim 75%, other (includes Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu) 25%
Languages:Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Literacy:definition: NA
total population: 81.4%
male: 86.8%
female: 73.5% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form: Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman
former: Muscat and Oman
Government type:monarchy
Capital:name: Muscat
geographic coordinates: 23 37 N, 58 35 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:5 regions (manatiq, singular - mintaqat) and 4 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Buraymi*, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat*, Musandam*, Zufar (Dhofar)*
Independence:1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
National holiday:Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
Constitution:none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a basic law considered by the government to be a constitution which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens
Legal system:based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:21 years of age; universal; note - members of the military and security forces are not allowed to vote
Executive branch:chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Legislative branch:bicameral Majlis Oman consists of Majlis al-Dawla or upper chamber (70 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and Majlis al-Shura or lower chamber (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; body has some limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory powers)
elections: last held 27 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: new candidates won 46 seats and 38 members of the outgoing Majlis kept their positions; none of the 20 female candidates were elected
Judicial branch:Supreme Court
note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has judges who practice secular and Shari'a law
Political parties and leaders:none
Political pressure groups and leaders:none
International organization participation:ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Hunaina bint Sultan bin Ahmad al-MUGHAIRI
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1981, 1988
FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Gary A. GRAPPO
embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: P. O. Box 202, P.C. 115, Madinat Sultan Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: [968] 24-643-400
FAX: [968] 24-699771
Flag description:three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Oman is a middle-income economy that is heavily dependent on dwindling oil resources, but sustained high oil prices in recent years have helped build Oman's budget and trade surpluses and foreign reserves. Oman joined the World Trade Organization in November 2000 and continues to liberalize its markets. It ratified a free trade agreement with the US in September 2006, and, through the Gulf Cooperation Council, seeks similar agreements with the EU, China and Japan. As a result of its dwindling oil resources, Oman is actively pursuing a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, with the objective of reducing the oil sector's contribution to GDP to 9 percent by 2020. Muscat is attempting to "Omanize" the labor force by replacing foreign expatriate workers with local workers. Oman actively seeks private foreign investors, especially in the industrial, information technology, tourism, and higher education fields. Industrial development plans focus on gas resources, metal manufacturing, petrochemicals, and international transshipment ports.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$61.21 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$40.52 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$19,100 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 38.3%
services: 59.5% (2007 est.)
Labor force:920,000 (2002 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:15% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):4% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):20.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $13.82 billion
expenditures: $13.67 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:2.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish
Industries:crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber
Industrial production growth rate:3.2% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:11.89 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:8.661 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:740,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—consumption:66,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:733,100 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:15,440 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:5.506 billion bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:18.98 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:8.795 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:10.19 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:795.2 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$3.785 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$22.68 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
Exports—partners:China 23.6%, South Korea 17.9%, Japan 10.9%, Thailand 10.7%, South Africa 7.7%, UAE 6.3% (2006)
Imports:$11 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
Imports—partners:UAE 22.4%, Japan 16.4%, US 8.1%, Germany 5.5%, India 4.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$7.004 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$3.483 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$16.16 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$30.68 million (2005)
Currency (code):Omani rial (OMR)
Exchange rates:Omani rials per US dollar - 0.3845 (2007), 0.3845 (2006), 0.3845 (2005), 0.3845 (2004), 0.3845 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:278,300 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1.818 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable
domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing; open-wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat
Radio broadcast stations:AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:13 (plus 25 repeaters) (1999)
Internet country code:.om
Internet hosts:3,763 (2007)
Internet users:319,200 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:137 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 7
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 130
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 34 (2007)
Heliports:2 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 4,126 km; oil 3,558 km (2007)
Roadways:total: 34,965 km
paved: 9,673 km (includes 550 km of expressways)
unpaved: 25,292 km (2001)
Merchant marine:total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 12,155 GRT/7,244 DWT
by type: chemical tanker 1, passenger 1
registered in other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Mina' Qabus, Salalah
  
Military
  
Military branches:Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF): Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Sultanat Oman, RAFO) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 719,871
females age 18-49: 508,621 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 581,444
females age 18-49: 435,107 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 26,391
females age 18-49: 25,466 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:11.4% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public
Trafficking in persons:current situation: Oman is a destination country for men and women primarily from Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan who migrate willingly, some of whom become victims of trafficking when subjected to conditions of involuntary servitude as domestic workers and laborers, including non-payment of wages, restrictions on movement and withholding of passports, threats, and physical or sexual abuse; Oman may also be a destination country for women from Asia, Eastern Europe, and North Africa for commercial sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 3 - Oman was downgraded to Tier 3 in the 2007 report because it did not report any law enforcement efforts to prosecute and punish trafficking offenses in 2006 and continues to lack victim protection services or a systematic procedure to identify victims of trafficking

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