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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Mozambique
 
Flag of Mozambique                                Map of Mozambique
 
Background:Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990's. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. Mozambique has seen very strong economic growth since the end of the civil war largely due to post-conflict reconstruction.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 801,590 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline:2,470 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:tropical to subtropical
Terrain:mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources:coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use:arable land: 5.43%
permanent crops: 0.29%
other: 94.28% (2005)
Irrigated land:1,180 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:216 cu km (1992)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.63 cu km/yr (11%/2%/87%)
per capita: 32 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment—current issues:a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
  
People
  
Population:20,905,585
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 44.7% (male 4,692,126/female 4,647,960)
15-64 years: 52.5% (male 5,345,618/female 5,633,511)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 244,886/female 341,484) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 17.4 years
male: 16.9 years
female: 17.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.803% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:38.54 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:20.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.949 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.717 male(s)/female
total population: 0.968 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 109.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 112.81 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 106.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 40.9 years
male: 41.4 years
female: 40.4 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:5.29 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:12.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:1.3 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:110,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups:African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Religions:Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)
Languages:Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence:25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution:30 November 1990
Legal system:based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
Legislative branch:unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%, other 8.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders:Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
International organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Todd C. CHAPMAN
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 492797
FAX: [258] (21) 490448
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s, and although it returned to double digits in 2000-06, in 2007 inflation had slowed to 8%, while GDP growth reached 7.5%. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. At the end of 2007, and after years of negotiations, the government took over Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007 the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a Compact with Mozambique; the Mozambican government moved rapidly to ratify the Compact and propose a plan for funding.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$17.82 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$8.132 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:7.5% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$900 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 23.1%
industry: 30.2%
services: 46.7% (2007 est.)
Labor force:9.6 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:21% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line:70% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 39.4% (2002)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:47.3 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):8% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):20.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $2.163 billion
expenditures: $2.623 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:22.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries:food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate:10% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:13.17 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:9.127 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:12 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:9.588 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:13,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:13,320 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:191.8 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:191.8 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:122.2 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-726 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$2.731 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports—partners:Netherlands 59.7%, South Africa 15.2%, Zimbabwe 3.2% (2006)
Imports:$3.028 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports—partners:South Africa 36.3%, Netherlands 15.6%, Portugal 3.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.451 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$4.284 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$1.286 billion (2005)
Currency (code):metical (MZM)
Exchange rates:meticais per US dollar - 26.264 (2007), 25.4 (2006), 23,061 (2005), 22,581 (2004), 23,782 (2003)
note: in 2006 Mozambique revalued its currency, with 1000 old meticais equal to 1 new meticais
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:67,000 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:2.339 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: fair system with an extremely low density of less than 1 fixed line per 100 persons
domestic: the telecommunications sector is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges; stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:1 (2000)
Internet country code:.mz
Internet hosts:15,231 (2007)
Internet users:178,000 (2005)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:147 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 125
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 79 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 964 km; refined products 278 km (2007)
Railways:total: 3,123 km
narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (1999)
Waterways:460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,964 GRT/5,324 DWT
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Beira, Maputo, Nacala
  
Military
  
Military branches:Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 3,793,373 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,751,223 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 185,314 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.8% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none
Illicit drugs:southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

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